Flashcards in BRS- Cardio Deck (91)
Compensatory mechanisms seen in cardiac failure
Congenital lesions causing increased pulmonary blood flow
Endgame for congenital heart lesions (^pulm flow or obstructive etc)
What acquired diseases may lead to CHF? (8)
fluid changes: anemia/ overload
Three general symptoms assc with CHF
Two vital sign changes assc with CHF
How does digoxin improve cardiac fxn?
increases efficiency of contractions, relieves tachycardia
How do PDEi improve cardiac fxn?
reduce afterload to enhance contractility
Four drug classes used in CHF for kiddos:
List the three "innocent" murmurs of childhood
Which of the three innocent murmurs are systolic? continuous?
stills + pulmonic systolic= systolic murmurs
venous hum= continuous
Which of the three innocent murmurs are loudest when supine? standing?
supine + exercise= stills, pulmonic systolic
standing= venous hum
List the most prominent location of the three innocent murmurs:
Neck: venous hum
upper left: pulmonic systolic
lower left: stills
Which of the three innocent murmurs changes with jugular venous compression
Systolic ejection murmur at left sternal border with split S2 is characteristic of what lesion?
Holosystolic murmur at the left lower sternal border is characteristic of what lesion?
Constant machine like murmur at upper left sternal border is characteristic of what lesion?
What congenital lesion may present with a murmur similar to aortic stenosis (systolic, upper right sternal border)?
To where does the murmur of aortic stenosis radiate?
Systolic ejection murmur at upper left sternal border with a click is characteristic of what lesion?
Innocent heart murmurs: ages
-venous: school age
-pulmonic systolic: any age
-stills: ages 2-7
Of the acyanotic congenital heart diseases, which present with RAD on ECG
ASD, pulmonic stenosis
Of the cyanotic heart lesions which may be normal on ECG or have LVH?
coarctation, aortic stenosis
Of the acyanotic lesions, which present with LVH until PHTN occurs, then RVH?
What are the three types of ASD?
sinus venosus (high)
Which of the three types of ASD is most common? Assc with Downs?
primum- downs (primum= one= trisomy twenty ONE)
secundum- most common
Where do pulmonary veins drain in sinus venosus type ASD?
What are the three types of VSD?
When must VSD be emergently operated on?
When causing PHTN, PHTN is irreversible if left over time.