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Flashcards in BRS- Cardio Deck (91)
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1

Compensatory mechanisms seen in cardiac failure

-Na/H2O retention
-Catecholamine release
-^HR, CX

2

Congenital lesions causing increased pulmonary blood flow

TGA
TAPVC
Large VSD/PDA

3

Endgame for congenital heart lesions (^pulm flow or obstructive etc)

CHF

4

What acquired diseases may lead to CHF? (8)

viral myocarditis
fluid changes: anemia/ overload
chronic hypoxia
hyperthyroid
doxo
cardiomyopathy
ischemic disease
dysrhythmias

5

Three general symptoms assc with CHF

FTT
poor feeds
exercise intolerance

6

Two vital sign changes assc with CHF

tachypnea, tachycardia

7

How does digoxin improve cardiac fxn?

increases efficiency of contractions, relieves tachycardia

8

How do PDEi improve cardiac fxn?

reduce afterload to enhance contractility

9

Four drug classes used in CHF for kiddos:

-Dig
-Diuretics
-Ionotropics
-PDEi

10

List the three "innocent" murmurs of childhood

-Stills
-Pulmonic Systolic
-Venous Hum

11

Which of the three innocent murmurs are systolic? continuous?

stills + pulmonic systolic= systolic murmurs
venous hum= continuous

12

Which of the three innocent murmurs are loudest when supine? standing?

supine + exercise= stills, pulmonic systolic
standing= venous hum

13

List the most prominent location of the three innocent murmurs:

Neck: venous hum
upper left: pulmonic systolic
lower left: stills

14

Which of the three innocent murmurs changes with jugular venous compression

venous hum

15

Systolic ejection murmur at left sternal border with split S2 is characteristic of what lesion?

ASD

16

Holosystolic murmur at the left lower sternal border is characteristic of what lesion?

VSD

17

Constant machine like murmur at upper left sternal border is characteristic of what lesion?

PDA

18

What congenital lesion may present with a murmur similar to aortic stenosis (systolic, upper right sternal border)?

Coarctation

19

To where does the murmur of aortic stenosis radiate?

carotids

20

Systolic ejection murmur at upper left sternal border with a click is characteristic of what lesion?

Pulmonic stenosis

21

Innocent heart murmurs: ages

-venous: school age
-pulmonic systolic: any age
-stills: ages 2-7

22

Of the acyanotic congenital heart diseases, which present with RAD on ECG

ASD, pulmonic stenosis

23

Of the cyanotic heart lesions which may be normal on ECG or have LVH?

coarctation, aortic stenosis

24

Of the acyanotic lesions, which present with LVH until PHTN occurs, then RVH?

VSD, PDA

25

What are the three types of ASD?

primum (low)
secundum (mid)
sinus venosus (high)

26

Which of the three types of ASD is most common? Assc with Downs?

primum- downs (primum= one= trisomy twenty ONE)
secundum- most common

27

Where do pulmonary veins drain in sinus venosus type ASD?

RA, SVC

28

What are the three types of VSD?

inlet
outlet, supracristal
trabecular, muscular

29

When must VSD be emergently operated on?

When causing PHTN, PHTN is irreversible if left over time.

30

Symptoms of VSD

small: none
mod-large: CHF
PHTN develops: CHF disappears