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Flashcards in Uworld + NBME Deck (313):
1

Type 1,2,4 RTA:
Describe urine pH

1: distal, above 5.5
2: proximal, below 5.5
4: below 5.5

2

Which of the RTA's is associated with high potassium?

Type 4

3

Causes of Type 1,2,4 RTA

1: poor H+ secretion
2: poor bicarb resorption
3: aldo resistance

(1= H+1, 2= BI)

4

What syndrome is most commonly associated with Type 2/ proximal RTA

Fanconis Anemia

5

What disorders may be associated with RTA 1?

Autoimmune: Sjogrens, Rheumatoid

6

Most common presentation RTA

-FTT
-low bicarb/ normal anion gap acidosis

7

Sun screen guidelines:

SPF 15-30 or higher
apply 30 mins before exposure
reapply every 2 hours

8

Diagnosis associated with:
-recurrent sinopulmonary infection
-absent lymph tissue
-low immunoglobulins

Brutons Agammaglobulinemia

9

Pnuemocystis pneumonia in a baby is suggestive of

HIV infection

10

Diagnosis associated with:
-profound lymphopenia
-recurrent infection
-failure to thrive

ADA deficiency (SCID)

11

Recurrent severe infection with staph, serratia, aspergillus is assc with with condition?

Chronic granulomatous disease
(impaired phagocytosis)

12

Niemann Pick vs Tay Sachs enzyme deficiencies :
+ inheritance pattern, age of onset

-Niemann Pick: sphingomyelinase
-Tay Sachs: hexosaminadase

both are AR, onset at 2-6 months

13

Symptoms assc with both tay sachs and neimann pick

-hypotonia
-failure to thrive
-cherry red macula

14

How are neimann pick and tay sachs distginuished?

-tay sachs: no HSM, hyperreflexia
-neimann pick: HSM, areflexia

15

On imaging, where are trachea and esophagus located?

-front: trachea
-behind: esophagus
(on lateral view)

16

C1 inhibitor deficiency is assc with what condition?

Hereditary angioedema

17

Gold standard for diagnosis of muscular dystrophy

genetic testing, not muscular biopsy.

18

Do health departments track vaccine refusal?

no

19

Cause of strokes in kiddos

Sickle Cell Anemia

20

Condition most commonly predisposing to orbital cellulitis

bacterial sinusitis

21

DOC for px in cat bites?
Most common bacteria assc?

-amox/clauvulanate
-pasteurella multocida (anaerobe)

22

Diagnosis assc with:
hematemesis
hypotensive shock
anion gab acidosis
gastric scarring
radiopaque substances in abdomen

iron poisoning

23

Treatment for iron to

deferoxamine

24

Tinnitus
fever
tachypnea
acidosis

cause

aspirin tox

25

Whole body convulsions + umbilical stump infection:
diagnsosis

tetanus

26

Dihydrorhadamine + nitroblue tetrazolium tests are used to diagnose what condition?

CGD

27

Treatment for cat scratch disease

azithro

28

Contrast TB and CSD adenitis

TB adenitis is nontender

29

Bacteria in dog/ cat mouths causing cellulitis

p. multocida

30

What animals carry salmonella?
What is the presentation of salmonella?

reptiles/ turtles
enteritis/mesenteric adenitis

31

Common causes of acute lymphadenitis

-staph aureus
-strep pyo

32

Treatment of radial head subluxation

hyperpronation of forearm

33

Describe tennis elbow

-lateral epicondylitis
-caused by excessive extensor use

34

Describe golfers elbow

-medial epicondylitis

35

What is Panner disease?

osteochondritis of the capitellum
loss of pronation/supination

36

Treatment for tinea corporis

(Ringworm)
clotrimazole

37

Congenital rubella findings

-sensorineural hearing loss
-cataracts
-PDA

38

Congenital toxo findings

-chorioretinitis
-hydrocephalus
-intracranial calcifications

39

Congeital varicella findings

-scarring
-limb hypoplasia
-cataracts

40

Signs of deliberate scald injury

-sparing of the flexor surfaces
-lack of splash marks
-sharp line of demarcation

41

When is significant microcytosis seen in iron deficiency anemia?

When Hct drops well below 30

42

Treatment with what vitamin improves measles

Vitamin A

43

Most common cause of vaginal bleeding in the neonate

Maternal withdrawl of estrogen

44

Neonatal chlamydia effects

-conjunctivitis
-pneumonia

45

Ddx excess testosterone + low LH in boys

-CAH
-exogeneous use (not in younger kiddos!)

46

Signs of viral vs strep pharyngitis

-viral: cough, rhinorrhea, ulcers, conjunctivitis
-bacterial: exudates, edema, no viral symptoms

47

Treatment of strep pharyngitis

-amox
-penicillin

48

Symptoms of galactokinase deficiency

-cataracts only

49

Symptoms of galactosemia (G1PUTD def)

-FTT
-hepatomegaly
-jerky movements
-cataracts

50

Most common cardiac defect in trisomy 18

VSD

51

Karyotype assc with Kallmans

46 XX

52

Treatment of neonates with Hep B exposure

HepB IVIG + Vaccination

53

Common manifestation of chronic constipation

anal fissures

54

How does constipation cause bladder infections?

urinary retention

55

Frequent UTIs + parenchymal scarring suggests ____.

vesicoureteral reflux

56

Definition of precocious puberty in girls

puberty before age 8

57

Mass causing precocious puberty in girls

granulosa cell tumor

58

Pathogenesis SCID

ADA def --> T cell failure --> B cell dysfxn

59

Treatment of SCID

stem cell transplant

60

Butthole excoriations=

helminth- pinworms-vermicularis

61

Cause of noninfectious hydrocephalus in low birth weight baby

IVH

62

Treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis

ORAL erythromycin

63

Most common symptom assc with sickle cell trait

painless hematuria

64

CD19 cells are what type? CD3 cells are what type?

CD19- B cells
CD3- T cells

65

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency symptoms

-skin infections without pus, poor wound healing
-delayed cord separation
-^^^neutrophils

66

Treatment of tourettes

-Antipsychotics
-A receptor agonists

67

CGD:
-inheritance pattern
-assc infections

-XR
-catalase + organisms: staph, serratia, burkholderia, aspergillus

68

Most common heart defect seen in Downs

-Complete atrioventricular septal defect

69

Life threatening GI condition in neonates with VLBW

necrotizing enterocolitis

70

Abdominal xray finding in NEC

-visible air in bowel wall
-portal venous air (pneumatosis intestinalis)

71

Afebrile bone pain in SCA cause:

-osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis)

72

Reyes Syndrome histo findings

-microvesicular fatty infiltration of the liver

73

3 bugs patients with SCA are susceptible to

s. pneumo
Neisseria
h flu

74

Jaundice type assc with breast milk jaundice

indirect
within 2 weeks of birth

75

Biliary jaundice type

direct
within 8 weeks of birth

76

Von Gierkes assc enzyme + metabolic findings

Glucose 6 Phosphatase
-low gluc
-lactic acidosis
-hyperuricemia
-hyperlipidemia

77

Ocular trachoma findings

-neovascularization
-follicular conjunctivitis

78

Cause of anemia with ^ LDH in SCA

extravascular hemolysis

79

Primary ciliary dyskinesia:
-mutation in ?
-low nasal ?

dynein
nitrous oxide

80

Contraindications to breast feeding (maternal)

-street drugs
-HIV
-active TB (until 2 weeks antiTB therapy)
-herpetic lesions
-varicella infection 5 days before- 2 days after delivery
-chemo/radiation

81

Breast feeding reduces maternal risks of which cancers?

-breast
-ovarian

82

Contraindications to breast feeding (neonatal)

galactosemia

83

In addition to improved immunity, how does breast feeding benefit baby?

-improved GI function
-decreased risk cancer, DM1, NEC

84

Most common cause of osteomyelitis

staph aureus

85

Cause of osteomyelitis in:
SCA
prosthetic devices

SCA: salmonella
Prosthetics: staph epi

86

Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
Beefy red tongue

=deficiency of ?

niacin

87

Wernickes cause

B1, thiamine deficiency

88

dermatitis
high homocysteine levels
stomatitis

cause?

B6 deficiency, pyridoxine

89

Absence seizures are assc with what psych condition?

ADHD

90

Cardiac rhabdomyoma + renal angiomyolipomas are assc with?

TS

91

Cataplexy is assc with _____

narcolepsy

92

Tourettes syndrome is assc with what other psych condition?

OCD

93

Optic Gliomas are assc with what syndrome?

NF 1
(+café au lait; neurofibromas)

94

Most common GI anomaly

Meckels diverticulum

95

Drug assc with rash in mononucleiosis

amoxicillin

96

Thymus location in neonate on CXR

Rt sided, triangular

97

Cause of edema in Turners syndrome

dysgenesis of the lymphatic network

98

Contrast syncope and seizure

Syncope= immediate return to consciousness
Seizure= delayed return to baseline consciousness

99

Contrast measles and rubella

measles= high fever, usually over 104, takes several days to spread
rubella= rash spreads 1 day, lower fever
*both spare hands, feet*

100

Location of adenopathy in measles vs rubella

measles- cervical adenopathy
rubella- posterior auricular, suboccipital adenopathy

101

Describe disseminated gonococcal presentation

-rash (vesiculopustular race sparing face)
-fever
-polyarthralgias

102

Describe RMSF rash

-wrists ankles ----> centripetal spread

103

Secondary syphilis rash

-full body including palms and soles

104

Rash assc with varicella

-vesicular, appears in successive crops

105

Symptoms assc with Celiacs

-weight loss
-IDA
-dermatitis herpetiformis

106

Describe appearance of dermatitis herpetiformis in celiacs

vesicular rash on extensor surfaces

107

Risk factors for celiacs

-family hx
-autoimmune disease (DM1, thyroiditis)
-IgA deficiency
-Down Syndrome

108

Abrupt onset changes in mood, bedwetting, academic difficulties = must rule out

abuse

109

Chronic stridor in an infant is termed

laryngomalacia

110

How is laryngomalacia diagnosed? treated?

laryngoscopy, will spontaneously resolve within 18 months

111

Most common primary immune deficiency?
Causes anaphylactic reaction to ....?

Selective IgA deficiency
Blood products

112

Most common cause of hip pain in children?
PE finding?

transient synovitis
abduction, external rotation

113

Septic arthritis
CRP?
WBC?
ESR

CRP greater than 20
White count greater than 12k
ESR greater than 40

+fever

114

Most common cause of proteinuria in children

transient proteinuria --> caused by fever, stress, exercise etc

115

Followup for isolated event of proteinuria

two subsequent tests
(if continue to be negative, benign condition, no further workup)

116

Treatment of impetigo

Topical mupirocin

117

Pertussis exposure prophylaxis

azithromycin for all contacts

118

Time of pertussis vaccination

-2,4,6 months
-15-18 months
-4-6 years
+ boosters

119

fever
urticaria
joint pain

cause?

serum sickness --> MC cause = B lactams, sulfa drugs

120

Growing pain features

-bilateral lower extremities
-primarily at night
-normal PE

121

Constitutional growth delay is assc with _____

delayed bone age

122

Hypothyroid assc growth pattern

-abrupt falling off of curve
-delayed bone age

123

When is VZV vaccination given?

1 & 4 years
+post exposure prophylactic vaccination with exposure between 1-4 years. (use VZIG only if immunodeficient)

124

How often should vision screen be done in kiddos?

every well child visit

125

When is meningococcal vaccination given?

11-12 --> booster at 16

126

When is rotavirus vaccination given?

2-8 months

127

In addition to binge eating and temper tantrums, what are some features of prader willis? (4)

-almond eyes
-small hands and feet
-hypotonia
-cryptorchidism

128

Pure red cell aplasia + triphalangeal thumbs

Diamond Blackfan

129

Wiskott Aldrich triad

-eczema
-thrombocytopenia
-hypogammaglobulinemia

130

Causes of idiopathic aplastic anemia

-chemicals (benzene, phenylbutazone)
-drugs (chloramphenicol, sulfa)
-viruses
-radiation

131

When is transient erythtroblastopenia of childhood typically diagnosed? MCV value?

After 1 year of age
usually macrocytic

132

Most common congenital cause of aplastic anemia

Fanconis
X linked --> chromosomal breaks

133

Fanconis
-skin finding
-blood finding
-features that are "small"
-eye and ear anomalies

-hypopigmentation + café au lait
-aplastic anemia
-small stature, head, gonads, thumbs
-strabismus + low set ears

134

Leading cause of B12/cobalamin deficiency

pernicious anemia/ IF deficiency

135

Diagnosis of turner

Pelvic U/S --> streak ovaries
Karyotype analysis= 45 XO

136

HUS triad

-microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
-thrombocytopenia
-acute kidney injury

137

Ferritin increases with ______

inflammation, it is an acute phase reactant

138

Lab finding assc with pyloric stenosis

hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis

139

Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip in young boys

Legg Calve Perthes disease

140

Most common population with SCFE

obese adolescent boys

141

PE finding in SCFE

pts hold hip externally rotated/ fail to internally rotate

142

Pineal gland mass signs

-limited upward gaze
-upper eyelid retraction
-pupils respond to accommodation but not light
(dorsal MIDBRAIN SYNDROME!!)

143

What is Colliers sign?

upper eyelid retraction caused by pinealoma

144

Ab mediated dancing eyes and feet:
name
cause

opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome
neuroblastomas

145

Hep B infection is a risk factor for what type of nephropathy?

-membranous

146

How is membranous nephropathy diagnosed?

more than 3g/day protein excretion

147

Most common infection assc with focal segmental sclerosing glomerulonephritis

HIV

148

Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in preadolescent children

minimal change disease

149

Most common cause of nephritic syndrome

post streptococcal glomerulonephritis

150

How does medulloblastoma lead to hydrocephalus

4th ventricle obstruction

151

In addition to rockerbottom feet, overlapping digits....
What are other physical characteristics of trisomy 18?

-micrognathia
-prominent occiput
-low set ears
-limited hip motion

152

What two organ systems are affected by trisomy 18?

-renal
-cardiac

153

Trisomy 13 effects

-midline defects (holo, omphalocele, microphtalmia)
-cutis aplasia

154

Typical location Mongolian spots + management

buttocks, totally benign

155

Bedwetting is normal up to what age?

5; may intervene after age 5 with alarm or DDAVP

156

How is pulmonary function tested in GBS?

spirometry

157

Maneuvers that increase the murmur of HCOM

Valsalva
Abrupt standing
NG

(all decrease preload)

158

Maneuvers that decrease the murmur of HCOM

hand grip (^afterload)
squatting (^pre+after load)
passive leg raise (^preload)

159

CT finding in retropharyngeal abscess

widened prevertebral space

160

Retropharyngeal abscess assc bugs

usually polymicrobial including staph aureus, strep pyo, and anaerobes

161

Cyclical vomiting is common in kiddos diagnosed with _______

migraines

162

Most common cause of congenital hypothyroid

dysgenesis

163

Lymph nodes in what region are always abnormal?

supraclavicular

164

Enzyme assc with Lesch Nyhan

HGPRT

165

Marfans genetic cause

AD mutation of fibrillin 1

166

Lyme disease
-assc bacteria
-assc tick

borrelia burgdorferi
ixodes scapularis

167

Chemicals for lyme prevention

-DEET
-permethrin

168

Endoscopy is recommended how long after caustic ingestion

within 24 hours

169

Contrast Ca/ Po content in breast milk v formula

more in formula but better gastric absorption in breast milk

170

Medial deviation of forefoot only=

metatarsus adductus --> recovers spontaneously

171

Medial deviaton of forefoot + hindfoot=

clubfoot= serial manipulation and casting

172

Ddx of rash in neonate

-ETN
-HSV
-Varicella
-SSS

173

ETN:
-timing
-palms+ soles?

first two weeks, spares palms and soles

174

Appearance of coxsackie herpangina vs herpetic gingivostomatitis

coxsackie: gray, posterior oropharynx
HSV: clusters, posterior oropharynx, erythematous gingiva

175

Treatment of herpangina vs herpetic gingivostomatitis

herpangina- supportive
HSV- acyclovir

176

Triple bubble sign cause

jejunal atresia -- vascular accident

177

Defintive diagnosis of lead poisoning

venous lead levels
(capillary= false +)

178

At what level of lead is chelation therapy begun?

45+ DMSA, succimer
70+ EDTA

179

Osteoid osteoma:
-MC location
-pain relief
-malignant?

-proximal femur
-improved with NSAIDs
-benign

180

Symptom associated with vaso-occlusive hand foot swelling in SCA

fever

181

#1 risk assc with RSV

apnea

182

Who gets palivizumab for RSV px?

preterm less than 29 weeks
BPD
congenital heart disease (hemodynamically significant)

183

Hammer toes + ataxia in males=

Freidrichs, AR, GAAepeat

184

MC COD in Freidrichs

cardiomyopathy

185

When does milk protein enterocolitis onset?

2-8 weeks
spontaneous resolves by 1 year

186

Amenorrhea with evidence of uterus--> next diagnostic step =

FSH

187

Treatment for Jervell Lange Neilsen/ Romano Ward

propranolol + pacer

188

Contrast JLN and RW

JLN: AR, hearing loss
RW: AD no loss hearing

Both= K+ channels

189

BB that is avoided in long QT syndrome

Sotalolol, also class III anti-arrhythmic, blocks K+ channels = long QT

190

2 MC common causes viral myocarditis

adeno
coxsackie

191

When is renal/ bladder US indicated in children?

less than 24 months first febrile UTI

192

Treatment for vaginal foreign body in kiddos

irrigation with warm fluid

193

How long should a breath holding spell last

less than 1 minute

194

Cause of newborn jaundice in Asian baby

decrease hepatic uridine diphosphogluconuate glucuronosyltransferase activity (UGT)

195

Trendelenburg sign cause

SGN/gluteus minimus weakness

196

Risks assc with IUGR:

hypo- calcemia, glycemia, thermia
polycythemia
asphyxia, meconium aspiration, hypoxia

197

Management of central precocious puberty

-brain imaging
-GnRH analog therapy

198

Contraindications to rotavirus vaccination

-anaphylaxis to ingredient
-history of inussusception, uncorrected malformation of GI tract
-SCID

199

Timing of rotavirus vaccination

2-6 months

200

Treatment of acute abnormal uterine bleeding

-high dose estrogen, progestin, OCPs
-tranexamic acid

201

Most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents

immature HPA axis --> anovulatory cycles

202

How to dx meckels diverticulum

technetium 99m pertechnetate scan

203

Rule of 2s for meckels diverticulum?

2% prevlance
2:1 male: female ratio
2% symptomatic at age 2
within 2 feet of the ileocecal valve

204

Key symptom of meckels

painless hematochezia

205

How is intussusception diagnosed? treated?

U/S --> air enema

206

Workup of newborn bilious emesis

Abdominal xray to rule out perforation -->
contrast enema to distinguish between hirschsprungs and meconium ileus

(M.I.= obstruction at terminal ileus, hirschsprungs= colon)

207

Erythema chronicum migrans = what?

localized lyme disease

208

Treatment of lyme disease meningitis and heart block?

ceftriaxone

209

Treatment of localized lyme disease in kiddos under 8 + preggos

amoxicillin, cefuroxime

210

Which NF type is assc with megalocephaly?

NF1

211

How are pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas distinguished on CT/MRI?

craniopharyngioma has calcifications

212

Treatment of hydrocele

reassurance... most resolve by 12 months

213

Most common bug in KIDS with CF?

staph aureus

214

Treatment of pneumonia in kids with CF?

cefepime (MSSA) + vanc (MRSA)

215

MC cause otitis externa

pseudomonas

216

Treatment of croup

steroids + epi(if mod ---> severe)

217

Cause of bilateral chemosis in 5-14 day old?

chlamydia

218

MC cause of eye discharge in babies?

dacryostenosis (no conjunctival/eyelid inflammation)

219

Treatment of ocular misalignment

patch or cycloplegic drops for NORMAL eye

220

Testing needing for patients with emphysema

CXR to rule out PTX

221

Two GI complications assc with HSP

intussusception
GI hemorrhage

222

ECG and CXR findings assc with tricuspid atresia

-decreased pulmonary markings
-left axis deviation
-tall P waves

223

Peripheral smear finding in SCA

Howell Jolly Bodies

224

Cause of recurrent sinopulmonary & GI infections AFTER 6 months?

X linked agammaglobulinemia

225

Treatment of minimal change disease

steroids

226

Angular cheilosis + normocytic anemia cause

B2 (riboflavin) def

227

Cheilosis, irritability, glossitis, stomatitis cause

B6, pyridoxine def

228

Punctate hemorrhages, corkscrew hair, gingivitis cause

scurvy, vit C def

229

MCC causes of bilateral lymphadenopathy

EBV,CMV, adeno

230

2 most common causes of acute unilateral lymphadenitis

staph aureus
strep pyo

231

Radiographic sign of compartment syndrome

triangular large fat pad surrounding bone

232

Acute otitis media:
-most common bugs
-accepted treatment

-strep pneumo, h flu, m cat
-10 days amoxicillin

233

Three foodborne diseases that present with mainly VOMITING

-staph aureus
-bacillus cereus
-noroviruses

234

Foodborne illnesses with WATERY, noninflammatory diarrhea (5)

-clostridium
-ETEC
-crypto
-cyclospora
-tapeworms

235

Most common bacterial cause of rhinosinusitis

strep pneumo, h flu
followed by mcat

(same as AOM)

236

21 hydroxylase def causes elevation of what hormone?

17-hydroxyprogesterone

237

Several weeks ear drainage + failed abx = suspicion for

cholesteatoma

238

First line treatment for epiglottitis

endotracheal intubation
(not steroids + racemic epi!)

239

Virus assc with atopic dermatitis

eczema herpeticum
(painful vesicles, crusting, fever, lymphadenopathy)

240

Wiskott Aldrich:
inheritance
underlying deficit

XR
impaired cytoskeleton regulation

241

Café au lait spots + precocious puberty

McCune Albright, cAMP kinase defect

242

GI polyposis + mucocutaneous pigmentation, estrogen producing tumor =

putz jegher

243

Syndrome assc with McCune Albright

Cushings

244

3 P's of McCune Albright

-precocious puberty
-pigmentation
-polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

245

How is measles transmitted

airborne!

246

Myotonic Dystrophy genetic cause

AD CTG repeat DMPK gene

247

COD in MD

respiratory/ cardiac failure

248

Duchenne/Becker genetic causes

XR absence vs decrease in dystrophin

249

Neuroblastoma origin cells

neural crest cells

250

Radio-opaque ingestion
+ metabolic acidosis
+ hematemesis

cause and treatment

iron tox
deferoxamine

251

Humoral deficiency assc with:
-lw B cells + Igs
-low Igs
-low IgA
-low IgA, IgG
-Low IgG

-low B Cells + Ig's: X linked agammaglobulinemia
-low Igs: CVID
-low IgA: IgA Def (MC)
-low IgA, IgG: Hyper IgM
-Low IgG: IgG subclass def

252

Treatment of stroke in SCA

exchange transfusion

253

Prolonged arthropathy in hemophilia cause

iron/hemosiderin deposition

254

UMN findings in down syndrome should raise suspicion for

atlantoaxial instability

255

Lymphocytes (as opposed to myelocytes) are + for what markers?

PAS
TdT

256

Lumbar Puncture + abx--> which comes first in meningitis management?

lumbar puncture unless acutely unstable

257

First step in management of CDH

CABs! endotracheal intubation

258

Treatment in ITP

if asymptomatic --> observe
if symptomatic --> steroids/ IVIG
(symptomatic= bleeding)

259

Most common predisposing factor for bacterial sinusitis

viral URI

260

Back pain + neuro dysfunction + palpable step off =

spondylolisthesis

261

Most common location for spondylolisthesis

L5 over S1

262

Fluid type used for stabilization

normal saline, no dextrose until maintenance fluids are began

263

Evanescent pink rash is assc with _____

ARF

264

JIA lasts how long?

more than 6 weeks joint pain

265

Pain at patellar tendon insertion site

Osgood Sclatter/ traction apophysitis

266

Site of patellar tenson insertion

tibial tubercle

267

Treatment for Osgood Schlatter

NSAIDs

268

Cyanosis that improves with crying

choanal atresia

269

Treatment of pyloric stenosis

stabilize with fluids/ correct electrolytes --> surgery

270

In addition to prematurity, what four factors increase the risk of respiratory distress syndrome?

-male sex
-perinatal asphyxia
-maternal diabetes
-cesarean section

271

Palpable mass assc with torticollis

SCM hypertrophy

272

What should be avoided for stabilization in case of cardiac lesions?

Intubation --> not effective for cardiogenic shock

273

Motion assc with absence seziures

eyelid fluttering

274

HSP glomerular abnormality assc

mesangial deposition of IgA

275

How does knee-chest position alleviate cyanotic spells in TOF?

increases systemic vascular resistance --> increased pulmonary blood flow

276

Refeeding syndrome is caused by a surge in _____

insulin

277

SCFE symptoms in boys younger than ten may be caused by

Legg Calve Perthes Disease
(limited internal rotation/ abduction)

278

Harsh systolic ejection murmur at LUSB + Single S2 =

TOF

279

What are the four types of hypersensitivity reactions?

Type I: immediate, IgE
Type II: cytotoxic, IgG/IgM autoantibodies
Type III: antibody, antigen complex
Type IV: delayed, Tcell/ macs

280

Three examples of Type III hypersensitivity:

serum sickness
PSGN
lupus nephritis

281

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia + goodpastures syndrome are what types of hypersensitivity reactions?

Type II, cytotoxic, IgG/IgM autoantibodies

282

Falling with object in mouth may cause what vascular injury?

carotid artery dissection = hemiplegia

283

MC cause urinary tract obstruction leading to Potters?

posterior urethral valves

284

1st line therapy for bedwetting

alarm --> desmopressin --> tricyclics

285

Ddx of acute stridor

croup
foreign body aspiration

286

Ddx of chronic stridor

laryngomalacia
vascular ring

287

Cause of anemia of prematurity

decreased EPO

288

Risk assc with orchiopexy

subfertility

289

Two causes of neonatal botulism

ingestion of spores from environmental dust
ingestion of preformed toxins from food

290

Treatment of paraphimosis

urgent reduction of prepuce

291

In addition to macrosomia, macroglossia, hemihyperplasia, what defects are seen in BWS?

abdominal wall defects, monitor abdominal US + AFP

292

Tumors assc with BWS

Wilms
Hepatoblastoma

293

Chromosome assc with BWS

11p15

294

Three complications of Mumps

-parotitis
-orchitis
-aseptic meningitis

295

Treatment for scabies

permethrin

296

mesdiastinal mass + anemia + high ferritin =

thymoma

297

midline mass in abdomen w/ calcifications=

neuroblastoma

298

linear consolidation in lung lobe at birth

congenital emphysema

299

cough + post-tussive emesis - fever=

pertussis

300

infantile UTI appropriate abx therapy

cefotaxime

301

ingestion:
-ulcers on lips + tongue
-agitated + drooling

drain cleaner

302

Treatment for HTN emergency

nitroprusside

303

air fluid level at tympanic membrane-

otitis media with effusion

304

Causes of calcium deficiency with ^^PTH
(6)

1) lack of intake/sun
2) malabsorption
3) liver disease
4) anticonvulsants
5) renal osteodystrophy
6) Vd dep Type 1

305

Causes of PO4 def without ^^ PTH (5)

1) Genetic Primary Hypophosphatemia
2) Fanconis
3) RTA II
4) Oncogenic
5) Phosphate malabsorption

306

Vitamin D Dep II is caused by

End organ resistance to 1,25 D3

AR

307

Most common non-nutritional tickets cause

Genetic primary hypophosphatemia (XD)

(Poor 1,25 D formation and PO4 absorption)

308

Rachitic rosary and tetany are seen in what rickets type?

Nutritional, not familial

309

Vitamin D Dep II cause + inheritance pattern

AR, poor 1,25 D formation

310

Cause of ricketts as scheduled with malignancy

PEX protein ----> excess PO4 loss in urine and poor 1,25 D formation

311

Two substances found in urine with fanconis

AAs
Phosphate

312

What RTA is assc with urinary loss of PO4?

RTA II (proximal)

313

Schmid metaphyseal dysplasia

Inheritance pattern + labs

AD
Normal labs

(Bowing waddling gait, abnormal imaging)