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Flashcards in BRS Renal Deck (109)
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1

Total body fluid requirements =

maintenance fluid needs +
prior loss +
ongoing losses

2

Two types of fluid losses

sensible (urine, etc. measurable)
insensible (sweat, skin etc...not measurable)

3

Maintenance fluid requirements for children

1500 mL/m^2/day
or.....
100ml/kg/day for first 10 kg
50ml/kg/day for second 10 kg
20 ml/kg/day for any additional 10 kg

4

How much should maintenance fluids be increased during fever?

12% for every degree increase in temp above 38

5

Normal sodium range + relevance to dehydration

130-150
above= hypernatremic dehydration, correct over 48 hours
below/equal= hypo/isonatremic, correct over 24 hours

6

Three severities of dehydration

3-5%: mild
7-10%: moderate
12%+: severe

7

Typical bolus amount

20ml/kg normal saline for all dehydrated patients What

8

Composition of oral rehydration salts

glucose + electrolytes
(coupled cotransport mechanism)

9

Define microscopic hematuria (#)

more than 6 RBCs per HPF

10

Cause of false negative urine dipsticks

vitamin C

11

Shape of RBCs from upper vs lower urinary tract

upper: dysmorphic, blebs in membrane
lower: normal biconcave discs

12

Three hematologic causes of hematuria

sickle cell
thrombocytopenia
thrombosis

13

Four glomerular diseases leading to hematuria

-bergers
-HSP
-PSGN
-Alports

14

Proteinuria level considered pathologic

more than 100mg/m^2/day

15

What causes incorrect measures of protein in urine

high concentration = false +
low concentration = false -

16

Typical test for urine protein in children + normal levels

TP/CR
6-24 months, less than 0.5 normal
2+ years, less than 0.2 normal

17

Dipstick + for blood but no RBS on U/A... cause?

hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria

18

Orthostatic proteinuria, protein is excreted when?

when upright but not supine

19

Cause of glomerular proteinuria

increased permeability of the glomerular capillaries

20

Cause of tubular proteinuria

decreased reabsorption due to injury

21

Marker for tubular vs glomerular proteinuria

tubular: B(two)macroglobulin
glomerular: microalbumin

22

Two types of glomerulonephritis

primary vs secondary

23

Signs of acute nephritic syndrome

-gross hematuria
-hypertension
-fluid overload

24

Signs of acute nephrotic syndrome

-heavy proteinuria
-hypercholesterolemia
-edema

25

Labs for glomerulonephritis (6)

-U/A
-TP/CR
-blood chem
-complement levels
-antibodies (DNAB, ASO)
-IgA

26

How long after GAS infection does PSGN onset?

8-14 days

27

PSGN assc labs

-low complement
-ASO+ 90%, ADB + for all

28

When is renal biopsy indicated for PSGN

within 8 weeks if kidney function isn't normalized

29

Most common acute glomerulonephritis worldwide? chronic?

acute: PSGN
chronic: IgA Nephropathy (Bergers)

30

Recurrent bouts of gross hematuria assc with URI:
cause

IgA Nephropathy (Bergers)