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Flashcards in CAL: Farm animal diagnostic techniques Deck (12):
1

When can you use BALV in farm animals?

tolerated in all but the most dyspnoeic patient, consider for diagnosis of BRDC.

2

Name the 3 BALV techniques

endoscope, trans-tracheal sampling and nasal tube sampling

3

Which animals should be selected for BALV?

sample as early as possible in disease outbreak, no CS but temperature >39.5 degrees. If marked mucopurulent nasal discharge the inflammatory process may be too advanced to yield appropriate cells for detecting virus by FAT.

4

Is BALV a surgical procedure?

No

5

Method - BALV

Fill a 50ml syringe with sterile PBS and flush into lung. Wait 20 seconds or so until lavage fluid is aspirated. This will retrieve a frothy, slightly cloudy sample (10-30ml).

6

Where does the BALV tube always end up? What is the effect of this?

Tube always locates in the right diaphragmatic lobe. This is a disadvantage for infectious respiratory disease as the anterior lung lobes are the initial sites of the disease process. Doesn’t seem to be a problem in clinical practice as despite gross lesions in the diaphragmatic lobes, cellular changes observed would still indicate viral infection. Other disease (parasitic pneumonia), sampling here is of positive benefit.

7

How quickly do you get the results for viral FAT?

very quickly - can be next day. also very specific

8

Cytology - early BRDC

multinucleated syncytia frequently present

9

What does a high temperature of 40 degrees in calves suggest?

supportive of a viral infection - FAT and/or paired serology would confirm this.

10

Tx- outbreak of BRSV

NSAID +/- intranasal vaccine

11

What indicates bacterial involvement in a respiratory infection?

pus in nose - then treat calves with AB

12

What are the 2 best ways to prevent BRDC in calves on a farm that has suffered from this problem previously?

'Vaccinate and booster calves against RS (+/- other respiratory pathogens) before weaning.' and 'Optimise stocking density and ventilation at housing.'