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Flashcards in Signs of respiratory disease Deck (51):
1

List signs of respiratory disease - 7

Coughing and bronchoconstriction
Sneezing
Tachypnoea and hyperpnoea
Respiratory distress (dyspnoea)
Nasal discharge, epistaxis and haemoptysis
Cyanosis
Abnormal respiratory noise (stridor)

2

Define bronchoconstriction

constant component of cough but separate reflex. slower onset and longer lasting may increase efficiency of coughing

3

What 2 main drugs can target coughing?

Demulcents - to soothe irritant receptors
Opioid-R agonists - butorphanol, codeine

4

What is the neural basis of coughing?

Irritant receptors through tracheobronchial tree. Afferent input carried in vagus. Cental cough centre in brainstem. Efferent motor side: vagus, phrenic, intercostal, lumbar, trigeminal, facial hyoglossal and accessory nerves/

5

List stimuli for coughing - 7

bronchoconsctriction
excessive mucous
inhaled particles
cold or hot air
intramural/extramural pressure
epithelial sloughng
enhanced epithelial permeability

6

Typical cough - upper airway problem

harsh, loud, non-productive

7

Typical cough - lower airway problem

soft, muted, productive

8

Typical cough - painful conditions

more muted cough

9

What else indicates a productive cough?

swallowing after coughing

10

Where does sneezing originate?

MM of nasal cavity

11

What is sneezing a sign of?

Nasal disorders (usually) or can be secondary to more distal disorders

12

Define tachypnoea

increased RR

13

Define hyperpnoea

increased RR and depth

14

Normal RR horse

8-15

15

Normal RR cow, sheep, pigs

10-30

16

Normal RR goats

25-35

17

Normal RR - foal and calf

20-40

18

Normal RR dog

10-30

19

Normal RR - cat

24-42

20

Normal RR - rabbit

30-60

21

Physiological causes - tachypnoea and hyperpnoea - 4

pain, exertion, heat, anxiety

22

Pathological causes - tachypnoea and hyperpnoea

high CO2
low pH
low O2
compensation (metabolic acidosis)
excessive environmental heat
damaged/diseased CNS (resp centres)
pain/restriction in breathing

23

Define dyspnoea

subjective feeling (therefore should be humans only) of respiratory distress

24

Define respiratory distress

laboured breathing, abnormal rate, rhythm and character, nostril flaring, exaggerated intercostal/abdominal effort, abducted elbows, stridor, anxious expression, inactivity.

SOME SPECIES (not horse) - extended head and neck, mouth breathing

25

Broad causes - inspiratory distress

Extrathoracic non-fixed airway obstruction
Restrictive diseases

26

What is an Extrathoracic non-fixed airway obstruction?

as negative pressures of inspiration suck them into airway (upper airway obstructions including laryngeal hemiplegia, soft palate disorders)

27

Give an example of a restrictive disease

pleural effusion - limits lung expansion

28

What is expiratory distress caused by? Example?

intra-thoracic airway obstruction - such as bronchoconstriction caused by RAO, farmer's disease (cattle), tracheal collapse (dogs and horses)

29

What are heaves lines?

in cases of chronic expiratory distress, body wall muscles hypertrophy and this becomes visible as heaves lines.

30

What is combined inspiratory and expiratory distress caused by?

an extra-thoracic fixed obstruction (intraluminal mass, FB)

31

Define orthopnoea

difficulty breathing whilst recumbent - pleural fluid accumulation, neonates (pliable ribs), diagphragmatic hernia, CHF

32

How is nasal discharge characterised?

Serous, mucoid, purulent, sanguinous
Combination
Ingested food/fluid
Scant-profuse
Continuous-intermittent
Unilateral-bilateral

33

Where does unilateral nasal discharge tend to originate?

structures rostral to the caudal end of the nasal septum, although low volume discharges from lower in the RespT can be unilateral too.

34

Where does bilateral nasal discharge tend to originate? 2

Caudal structures OR bilaterally affected rostral structures

35

What does a foul odour of discharge indicate?

anaerobic infections, necrotising conditions, or connection to oral cavity - tooth root infections

36

What may food/fluid indicate?

dysphagia or communication between oral and nasal cavities

37

Define epistaxis

presence of blood in the external nares. Commonest cause in horses = tram

38

Define haemoptysis

presence of blood in the sputum (i.e. coughed up blood).

39

Causes - epistaxis and haemoptysis

Trauma
Coagulopathies
Erosive/invasive conditions
EIPH - equines

Look for accompanying signs - stridor (SOL), discharge (purulent or malodorous) and lung disease (cough or auscultate).

40

Define cyanosis

blue discolouration - skin, conjunctivae, MM - i.e. reflection of RespT problem in the CVS

41

How low does PaO2 have to fall for cyanosis?

<50mmHg

42

When is cyanosis present?

Only if [Hb] is normal or near normal. Not with anaemia.

43

Define polycythaemia

higher than normal [Hb]

44

Whenare polycythaemic patients cyanotic?

at higher PaO2

45

When can peripheral cyanosis occur?

poor peripheral perfusion (shock, HF).

46

Define pulmonary cyansis

= hypoxaemia. (V/Q mismatch, alveolar hyperventilation, shunting, diffusion impairment)

47

When does cardiac cyanosis occur?

shunting

48

What is acquired cyanosis?

usually reducing chemical - e.g. acetaminophen, nitrates, red mapleleaf-methaemoglobin

49

Define stridor. What should be determined?

abnormal, intense respiratory sound heard without a stethoscope. Determine if inspiratory OR expiratory.

50

What is linked gait and respiration in horses?

expiration when leading forelimb contacts the ground(bt at trot, breathing and stride rate are independent)

51

Causes - stridor. Examples?

Fixed or dynamic obstructions (laryngeal paralysis, stenotic/paralysed nares, nasal masses, soft palate elongation)