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Flashcards in PRACTICAL: Diagnostic techniques Deck (20):
1

Define NAD

No appreciable disease

2

What questions to ask a horse owner if horse has respiratory problem?

• Age, breed
• Management
• Worming
• Vaccination status
• What the owner perceives the problem to be
• How long has it been present
• Is it getting worse or better?
• When does it occur e.g. at rest, exercise, in stable?
• Any associated exercise intolerance?
• Has the horse received any treatment yet?
• Has the horse had this problem before?
• Any other horses on the yard affected?

3

What are the components of a respiratory system exam? 7

• TPR
• Airflow from each nostril
• Facial symmetry
• Submandibular and retropharyngeal LNs
• Palpate larynx
• Auscultate lungs
• Look at breathing pattern/effort

4

Components of CVS exam - 5

• TPR (already done)
• MMs and CRT
• Peripheral pulse – facial or transverse facial
• Jugular pulse height and refill time
• Cardiac auscultation

5

If a cough was due to URT disease what else woul dyou not?

other URT abnormalities on PE (if not then likely to be LRT problem)

6

How can you sample the LRT?

- BALV
- Transtracheal aspirate (via endoscope - most commonly)

7

T/F: All causes of noise at exercise are URT in origin.

True

8

Most common cuases of noise at exercise (adult horses)

- DDSP
- RLN
- Epiglottic entrapment

9

How can you rule out IAD?

tracheal aspirate via endoscope - to rule in or out concurrent subclinical LRT inflammation

10

Dictyocaulus arnfieldi can cause respiratory disease - how can it be killed?

Horses should be given ivermectin every 8 weeks and moxidectin every 12 weeks

11

Why isn't equine influenza vaccine 100% effective? 3

- antigenic drift
- individual response to vaccine
- short duration of immunity to vaccine in young horses (3-5 months)

12

How big are the submandibular LNs in a normal horse?

broad bean sized (pinch between mandibles at level where caudal headcollar strap lies, if you can't find them, they are probably normal)

13

When are the retropharyngeal LNs palpable?

above larynx only when enlarged

14

What does asymmetry of the dorsal aspect of the larynx suggest?

muscle atrophy as found in laryngeal hemiplegia (but this is difficult to determine)

15

How sensitive is lung auscultation in detecting lung pathology?

not very sensitive (fat, hairy animals - often no sound heard) IF normal sounds are heard, this doesn't rule out pathology of lungs.

16

What do Kirschmann spirals indicate?

chronic inflammation

17

What do preserved neutrophils indicate?

active inflammation

18

Describe appearance of mast cells

- smaller than macrophages
- doesn't have foamy cytoplasm (unlike macrophages)
- bilobed kidney shaped nucleus
- small numbers (<10%) present in normal equine airway

19

Describe the cells in a normal equine tracheal lavage

- usually 80% cells are macrophages and lymphocytes (split in equal numbers)
- normally <10%) mast cells
- ciliated columnar epithelium are a normal finding (dislodged during lavage)

20

What does a tracheal aspirate smear that is densely cellular with a pink background suggest?

abnormal