Flashcards in PRACTICAL: SA cardio-respiratory exam Deck (23):
What is S2?
end of systole and closure of AV valves.
What might you hear on right side thoracic auscultation?
tricuspid valve sounds and murmurs associated with congenital defects such as VSDs
Where should you listen for lung sounds?
o Place over caudodorsal lung fields and cranioventral lung fields. Both sides.
What are the 2 surfaces to a stethoscope?
Flat = diaphragm surface.
Concave = bell surface.
What do you listen to with the diaphragm side of the stethoscope?
high frequency sounds (S1 and S2) and systolic heart murmurs
What do you listen to with the bell side of the stethoscope?
use for lower frequency sounds, abnormal sounds in S3 and S4, diastolic heart murmurs.
How do you differentiate high and low frequency heart sounds with a single surface stethoscope?
o Apply different pressures to body surface in order to distinguish low and high frequency sounds
o High frequency sounds – medium pressure
o Low frequency sounds – reduced pressure
What is increased respiratory effort associated with?
URT disease (e.g. laryngeal paralysis, laryngeal tumour)
What is paradoxical breathing? What are the Ddx for this?
abdomen moves inwards, diaphragm moves cranially. Can be a subtle finding. DDx: URT disease, stiff lungs (congestion or fibrosis), significant chronic pleural effusion or diaphragmatic disease.
What should you palpate the cervical trachea for?
for shape. Yorkshire terriers may have an abnormal shape associated with tracheal collapse. Gentle pressing may cause coughing – known as ‘tracheal pinch’.
When are jugular veins significantly distended?
RA increased pressure and therefore the possibility of right-sided CHF
Why palpate the abdomen on a CVS exam?
any evidence of hepatic congestion or obvious ascites (both present with marked right-sided CHF).
What clinical sign might you see in giant dogs with HF?
dependent oedema in distal limbs in animals with HF
What might absence of an apex beat indicate?
a SOL between the heart and body wall.
T/F: most murmurs in SAs are systolic
What does a phonogram do?
shows intensity of heart murmur in relation to points on an ECG when the two are run simultaneously.
Where is a PDA murmur heard?
heard beyond heart base, high into the axilla (since the duct lies outside the heart), continuous (i.e. in systole and diastole). Commonly a cow-teat shape of the ductus.
Define 'gallop rhythm'. Cause?
= ‘du lub dup’. S1 and S2 heard but also additional sounds: S3 passive ventricular filling, S4 active ventricular filling or occasionally both. Endocarditis may cause this.
T/F: a rising pulse is normally palpable in small animals
Why should you listen to the lungs over ribs 12 or 13?
lungs don't extend this far caudally - you will be auscultating the liver instead. Remember to do both sides of the thorax!
How can you distinguish URT and LRT noises?
URT get louder as you move cranially to the URT from the LRT (i.e. you may first detect them as referred noises from the URT in the LRT).
What may an absence of heart sounds indicate? 2
SOL or pleural fluid