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Nutrition > Calcium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Calcium Deck (59):
1

whats the Amount in body? Calcium

850-1400 g --> more than other minerals

2

is it a trace element, vitamin, or mineral? Calcium

mineral

3

how much is in the bones & teeth? Calcium

99% bones & teeth

4

how much are in the plasma & body fluids? Calcium

1% plasma & body fluids

5

what does it decrease? Calcium

Decrease --> Tetany

6

what are its seven functions? Calcium

 Bone growth
 Teeth formation
 Initiates blood clotting  Muscle contraction
 Nerve transmission
 Cell wall permeability  Enzyme regulator and catalyst

7

Calcium is the most recognized nutrient associated with? Calcium

bone health

8

what seven other things are essential for bone health besides calcium? Calcium

Vitamins D and K Phosphorus Magnesium Fluoride
Zinc Boron

9

what are the two main things associated with its function of Bone growth? Calcium

most recognized nutrient associated with bone health, Provide strength & flexibility

10

what are the details of it Providing strength & flexibility to the bones? Calcium

 ~ 65% minerals,
hardness
 ~35% organic structures, strength, durability, & flexibility

11

what are the four parts of the bone it functions with? Calcium

Collagen, Hydroxyapatite, Cortical, Trabecular

12

what is collagen? Calcium

fibrous protein in bone tissue

13

what is Hydroxyapatite? Calcium

mineral crystals around collagen that bear weight

14

what is Cortical? Calcium

(compact)  80% of skeleton
 Outer surface

15

what is the Trabecular? Calcium

 20% of skeleton
 Inside (scaffolding)
 Supports outer cortical
bone
 Faster turnover rate
(sensitive to hormones & nutritional deficiencies)

16

how does it function in bone growth? Calcium

deposition of Ca & increase in bone size

17

how does it function in modeling of the bone? Calcium

shaping of bone

18

how does it function in remodeling of bone growth? Calcium

recycling of bone tissue

19

when is bone growth completed? Calcium

Complete by age 14 yr girls; 17 boys

20

when is bone modeling complete? Calcium

Complete by early adulthood

21

what increases the thickness of bone modeling? Calcium

Exercise & overweight increase thickness

22

how much bone is remodeled every year? Calcium

20%

23

whats the order of the three bones that release during remodeling of bones? Calcium

Alveolar bone first to release, then pelvis & spine

24

what are the details of its function with Cell wall permeability? Calcium

Ca channels

25

what are the details of its function as an Enzyme regulator and catalyst? Calcium

-Activates ATPase,
lipase

26

whats the absorption rate in children? Calcium

50-60%

27

whats the absorption rate in adults? Calcium

10-30%

28

whats the absorption rate in pregnancy? Calcium

50%

29

what are the six favorable factors of absorption? Calcium

Vitamin D  Acid pH  Lactose
 Ca:P ratio 1:1  Parathyroid
Hormone  Growth

30

what are the six unfavorable factors of absorption? Calcium

 Stress
 Fats
 Oxalic Acid  Phytate
 Fiber
 Lack of exercise

31

what are the four things associated with deficiency? Calcium

Hypocalcemia, Rickets, Osteomalacia , Osteoporosis

32

what are the causes of Hypocalcemia? Calcium

kidney disease, vitamin D deficiency, or diseases that
inhibit PTH production

33

what are the symptoms of Hypocalcemia? Calcium

muscle spasms and convulsions (tetany)

34

what happens with rickets in children? Calcium

Failure of fontanel to close in infancy

35

what happens with Osteomalacia? Calcium

(loss of mineral, not matrix)

36

what happens with Osteoporosis? Calcium

(loss of mineral plus matrix)

37

what are the three things that happen with age? Calcium

Bone mass decreases with age
 Age-related hormonal (estrogen and testosterone) changes influence bone density
 Decreased vitamin D metabolism with age

38

what are the three details of women being at a disadvantage with osteoporosis? Calcium

 80% of Americans with osteoporosis: women
 Women have lower bone density than men  Low estrogen production increases bone
loss: postmenopausal women and adolescent girls (extreme dieting)

39

who is most at risk for getting osteoporosis? Calcium

Caucasian women of low body weight with first-degree relative (mother or sister) with osteoporosis

40

what happens to bones with regular exercise? Calcium

stresses bone tissues, stimulates bone
density

41

what is Important for bone growth in adolescence? Calcium

physical activity

42

what do weight bearing activities do? Calcium

Weight-bearing activities (walking, jogging)
help increase bone mass

43

what are the benefits of being overweight? Calcium

may protect bones

44

what does smoking do? Calcium

decreases bone density

45

how can the harmful affects of smoking on the bones be reversed and when are the benefits seen? Calcium

Can be reversed with smoking cessation, 6 weeks

46

what does Alcohol abuse & osteoporosis increase? Calcium

fractures

47

with Moderate alcohol intake what happens to the body? Calcium

May increase bone mineral density

48

what is the treatment for Osteoporosis? Calcium

no cure just slow progression

49

what are the three ways to slow the progression of Osteoporosis? Calcium

 Adequate calcium & vitamin D intake  Regular exercise (weight-bearing)
 Anti-resorptive medications

50

what happens to the excess of it from the diet? Calcium

excreted in feces

51

what causes mineral imbalance? Calcium

supplements

52

what is the disease associated with toxicity? Calcium

Hypercalcemia (high blood calcium)

53

what causes Hypercalcemia? Calcium

cancer or excess parathyroid hormone

54

what are the five things that happen with hypercalcemia? Calcium

Fatigue, appetite loss, constipation, mental
confusion, calcium deposits in soft tissues

55

what are the two things that happens when calcium deposits in soft tissues as a result of toxicity in hypercalcemia? Calcium

Kidney stones
Calcification of arteries

56

whats the DRI? Calcium

1,000 mg

57

whats the upper limit? Calcium

2,500 mg

58

whats an excellent food source? Calcium

milk products?

59

what are three good food sources? Calcium

 Green leafy vegetables (kale, collard greens, broccoli, and
cabbage are low in oxalates)
 Fortified foods (orange juice, soy milk)  Fish with edible bones (sardines, salmon)