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Flashcards in Vitamin D Deck (34):
1

what are its three hydroxyl groups? Vitamin D

Calcitriol, Calciferol, (Cholecalciferol)

2

what is it? Vitamin D

hormone

3

what is its precursor? Vitamin D

cholesterol

4

what are the two things its blocked by? Vitamin D

melanin and sunscreen

5

what the RDI? Vitamin D

15 min/day (light), 38 min (dark)

6

what theory is associated with it? Vitamin D

theory of racial differences

7

where was it discovered? Vitamin D

dogs who were inside and dogs who were outside

8

what are the three things associated with its function in calcium metabolism? Vitamin D

Increases absorption of Ca from intestine, Increases resorpIon of Ca from bone, Increases Ca & P resorpIon by kidney

9

what are its two functions? Vitamin D

calcium metabolism, Influences gene acIvity

10

what is the trabecular? Vitamin D

the spongy bone where constant remodeling occurs by osteoclast and osteoblast

11

what is osteoblast? Vitamin D

the process of new bone being added in the trabecular

12

what is osteoclast? Vitamin D

the process of the degradation of bone surface in the trabecular

13

what are the four consequences of deficiency? Vitamin D

Ca not absorbed from intesIne or resorbed by kidney, Bones dissolve to maintain blood Ca levels, Rickets, Osteomalacia

14

what is the deficiency disease in children? Vitamin D

rickets

15

what three things make a child suseptable to rickets? Vitamin D

Crowded smoky industrial areas, dark-skinned people, In purdah

16

what are the seven things that can happen when a child gets rickets? Vitamin D

Inadequate deposition of Ca, bones remain soft, Bowing of legs, Rachitic rosary, Failure of fontanel to close, Late eruption of teeth; less well formed, Retarded growth

17

what are the two deficiency diseases in adults? Vitamin D

Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis

18

what are the three things that happen as a result of getting osteomalacia? Vitamin D

Softening of bones, Brittle, malformed

19

what are the eight things that can cause osteomalacia? Vitamin D

Inadequate intake or absorption of vitamin D
• Inadequate intake or absorption of Ca
• Excess resorption of Ca (repeated pregnancies)
• Breast feeding without supplementation
• Gastric surgery, alcoholics
• Kidney removal, liver cirrhosis

20

what does Cadmium Toxicity do? Vitamin D

Cadmium replaces Ca in bone

21

what the disease associated with Cadmium Toxicity? Vitamin D

Itai-itai disease

22

what happens with Itai-itai disease? Vitamin D

tendons cant connect bone because its soft

23

where's a typical place people get Cadmium Toxicity? Vitamin D

Polluted areas of China

24

what are the four things that happen with the deficiency disease Osteoporosis? Vitamin D

Lack of bone matrix & Ca, Fragile bones fracture, Compaction of bone, lose height

25

when does the Dowager’s hump occur? Vitamin D

when people get osteoporosis and there bones compact and they lose height

26

at what age does our peak bone mass occur? Vitamin D

30 yrs

27

is osteoporosis inevitable with age? if so at what age? Vitamin D

Inevitable with age, especially > 80 yr

28

why are the elderly more prone to get osteoporosis? Vitamin D

Elderly drink lifle milk, not outside as much • Lose ability to synthesize acIve form

29

whats happens with toxicity? Vitamin D

Increases blood Ca --> Ca deposition in soft Issues

30

when blood Ca increases due to toxicity what three things occur? Vitamin D

Kidney Stones
• CalcificaIon of arteries • Mental confusion

31

when are the three times toxicity can occur? Vitamin D

Occurs at 25X RDI; 2X in pregnancy; Cod liver oil, halibut liver oil

32

what are the four main food sources? Vitamin D

cod liver oil, certain fish, milk, some cereals

33

whats the RDI for adults? Vitamin D

15 μg/day

34

whats the RDI for people > 70 yrs? Vitamin D

20 μg/day