Cardio Pulm Flashcards Preview

NPTE Prep > Cardio Pulm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardio Pulm Deck (61):
1

Atrial Systole

contraction of R and L atria pushing blood into the ventricles

2

Atrial diastole

period between atrial contractions when atria are repoloraizing

3

Ventricular systole

contraction of the ventricles pushing blood into the pulmonary arteries and aorta

4

Ventricular diastole

period between ventricular contractions with ventricles are repolarizing

5

Preload

tension in the wall of the ventricles at the end of diastole. it reflects the venous filling pressure that fill left ventricle during diastole

6

Afterload

the forces that impede to flow of blood out of the heart (pressure in peripheral vascular system, compliance of the aorta, mass and viscosity of blood)

7

Stoke volume

amt of blood ejected by each contraction of the left ventricle (60-80ml normal)

8

Cardiac output

amt of blood pumped from R or L ventricle per minute. CO =SV *HR
Normal male=4.5-5 L/min
up to 25L/min during exercise

9

Neutrophils

fight against infectionby ingesting bacteria and debris

10

Lymphocytes (3 types)

T and natural killer: protect against viral infection
B lymphocytes: develop into cells that protect against antibodies

11

Monocytes

ingest dead of damaged cells and help defend against infection organisms

12

Eosinophils

kill parasites, destroy cancer cells, involved in allergic response

13

Basophils

participate in allergic response

14

Polycythemia

too many RBC leading to thick blood and increasing risk of stroke and MI

15

Anemia

low RBC count >>> fatigue and weakness

16

Thrombocytopenia

low platelets>> inc risk of bruising and abnormal bleeding

17

Throbocythemia

increases risk os thrombus>>> inc risk of MI and stroke

18

Leukopenia

Low WBC increases risk of infection

19

Leukocytosis

abnormally high WBC count likely indicating infection of leukemia

20

muscles of inspiration

Diaphragm, external intercostals, internal intercostals,

21

Muscles of exhalation

with forceful breating: int/ext oblique, rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus,

22

Anatomic dead space (VD)

The volume of air that occupies to non-respiratory airways

23

Expiratory reserve volume(ERV)

max vol of air that can be exhaled after normal tidal volume: apporx 15% of total lung volume

24

Forced expiratory volume (FEV)

max volume of air exhaled in specific amt of time, usually 1st, 2nd, and 3rd second of a forced vital capacity maneuver

25

Forced vital capacity (FVC)

volume of air expired during forced maximal expiration after a forced maximal inhalation

26

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

volume of air in lungs after normal exhalation. FRC=ERV+RV. Approx 40% of lung volume

27

Inspiratory capacity (IC)

max vol of air that can be inspired after normal tidal exhalation. (60% of lung volume)

28

inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

max volume of air that can be inspired after normal tidal volume inspiration

29

Minute volume ventilation (VE)

volume of air expired in 1 min. VE=TV x respiratory rate

30

peak expiratory flow (PEF)

max flow of air during the beginning of a forced expiratory maneuver

31

Residual volume (RV)

volume of gas remaining in lung after max expiration. 25% of lung volume

32

Tidal volume (TV)

total volume of inspired and expired with each breath during quiet breathing. approx. 10% of total lung volume

33

Total Lung capacity (TLC)

total volume of air in lungs after a maximal inspiration.

34

Vital capacity (VC)

total volume change between max inspiration and max expiration (75% of total lung volume)

35

Normal BP

<120/80

36

Prehypertension

120-139/80-89

37

Stage 1 hypertension

140-159/90-99

38

Stage 2 hypertension

>160/<100

39

hematocrit

males: 38.8-46.5%
Females: 35.4-44.4%

40

hemoglobin

Males: 13.3-16.2 gm/dl
Females: 12.0-15.8 gm/dl

41

Total cholesterol

240 =high

42

LDL cholesterol

190 very high

43

HDL cholesterol

60high

44

Triglyceride

500 very high

45

Auscultation of heart sounds

aortic area: 2nd intercostal space at R sternal border
Pulmonic Area: 2nd intercostal space at left sternal border
Mitral area: 5th intercostal spacemedial to the left midclavicular line
tricuspid area: 4th intercostal space at left sternal border.

46

Crackles (rales)

discontinuous high pitched popping sound head usually during inspiration. may be associated with restricted or obstructive disorders. Represents the movement of fluid or secretions during inspiration

47

Pleural Friction Rub

Dry crackling sound heard during both inspiration and expiration. Occurs when inflamed viscera and parietal pleura rub together.

48

Rhonchi

continuous low pitched sound (snoring/gurgling). caused by air passing through an airway which is obstructed by secretions or liquid

49

Stridor

high pitched wheeze with inspiration or expiration. indicates airway obstruction(think Peds)

50

Wheeze

musical or whistling sound. heard during inspiration and expiration. arise from turbulent airflow

51

BMI

40 extreme obesity

52

Postural Drainage: Apical segments

pt sitting leaning back 30-40 degrees
percuss above clavicles

53

Postural Drainage: Posterio segment, R upper lobe

pt is turned 1/4 from proneon the left side. bed horizontal. percuss on medial border of R scapula

54

Postural Drainage: posterior segment L upper lobe

pt turned 1/4 from prone on R side. HOB 45deg. percuss medial border of L scapula

55

Postural Drainage: Lingula left upper lobe

pt turned 1/4 from supine on the R side with foot of bed elevated 12 inches. percuss left chest between axilla and left nipple

56

Postural Drainage: anterior segments R and L upper lobes

pt is supine, bed horiz, percuss below clavicles

57

Postural Drainage: Right middle lobe

pt is turned 1/4 from supine on left side, foot of bed elev 12 in, percuss between R axilla and nipple

58

Postural Drainage: Superior segments left and R lower lobes

pt prone, bed horiz, percuss below inferior border of the left and R scapula

59

Postural Drainage: anterior basal segments left and R lower lobes

pt supine with foot of bed 18in elev, percuss over lower ribson L and R side

60

Postural Drainage: posterior basal segments L and R lower lobes

pt is prone, foot of bed elev 18in, percuss over lower ribs on L and R side

61

Postural Drainage: Lateral Basal segments lower lobes

pt in sidelying with foot of bed elev 18in, percuss over lower ribs,