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Flashcards in Modalities Deck (34):
4

Ultra sound: depth

up to 5cm

5

Ultra sound: Frequency

1MHz for deeper tissue (up to 5cm)
3Mhz for shallow tissue (1-2cm)

6

Ultra sound: duty cycle

= on time/ (on time+off time)
eg 20% = 1msec on , 4msec off
lower percentage are for non-heating effects
20%is most commonly recommended for non-thermal

7

Ultrasound: duration

2-3 times the size of transducer =5 min
longer duration for lower intensity/ lower frequencies

8

bilik mandi

bathroom

8

Phonophoresis

Ultrasound to deliver meds

9

Ultrasound contraindications

active bleeding, decreased temp sensation, decreased circulation, DVT, infection, malignancy, over breast implants, over carotid sinus/cervical ganglia, epiphyseal areas in kids, overs eyes, heart, genitals, over preg bump, over pacemaker, thrombophlebitis, vascular insificianecy

10

Hydrotherapy tanks: extremity tank

for distal LE / UE

11

botol

bottle

11

Hydrotherapy tank: lowboy tank

larger body parts, permits long sitting, wter to midthoracic level,

12

Hydrotherapy tank:highboy tank

larger parts, permits sitting in chest deep water with hips and knees flexed,

13

Hydrotherapy tank: hubbard tank

full body emersion, contraindications= unstable BP, incontinence) not excedd 100degF

14

meja

table

14

Lumbar traction: supine vs prone

Supine= more separation of posterior structures (facet joints, intervertebral foramin)
Prone: separation of anterior structures (disk spaces)

15

Lumbar traction: intermittent vs static

Static: for symptoms exaggerated by mvmt
intermittent: joint mobilization for those who cannot tolerate static

16

Lumbar traction: Force

max 30 lbs for initial session
25% of BW for soft tissue stetch (muscle spasm/disc protrusion)
50% of BW for separation of vertebrae

17

Lumbar traction: duration

no specific guidelines: 5-30min
disk= 10min or less
up to 30 with other conditions

18

Cervical traction: amt of flexion to target c spine

upper cervical: 0-5deg
mid cervical: 10-20deg
lower cervical: 25-35deg

19

Cervical traction: Force

up to 10lbs in 1st session
7-10% of pts BW for soft tissue (11-15lbs)
13-20% of BW for joint distraction (20-30lbs)
do not exceed 30lbs

20

Compression garmaents: Antiembolism, scar/burn, edema control pressures

Antiembolism: 16-18mmHg (off the shelf)
Burn/scar: 20-30mmHg
Edema control: 30-40mmHg

21

CPM rate

2 cycles /min

22

Electrotherapy: Current

direct flow of charge from one place to another. Measures in ampere =6.25x10^18 electrons/ sec

23

Electrotherapy: Voltage

electromotive force/ electrical potential difference. Volts

24

Electrotherapy: Resistance

ability of a material to oppose the flow of ions through it. Ohms. resistance= voltage/current

25

Ionto: Dosage

measured in milli amp minutes. ranges from 40-80 mA-min. (40mA-min can be delived in 10min with 4.0mA. lower amplitude will take longer to admin but less likely to irritate skin)

26

Ionto: Duration

10-20min. check every 3-5 min

27

Ionto: Positive Meds

Copper sulfate: fungal infection
lidocaine: analgesia, inflammation
Magnesium Sulfate: muscle spasms, ischemia
Zinc oxide: Healing, dermal ulcers, wounds

28

Ionto: negative meds

Acetic acid: calcific deposits/myositis ossifican
Calcium Chloride: scar, keloid, ms spams
Dexamethasone: inflamm
Iodine: scars, adhesive capsulitis
salicylates: ms/jt pain, plantar warts

29

Massage: effleurage

light stroke, performed at beginning and end to allow pt to relax, direct toward heart

30

Massage: friction

small circles over trigger pt, or spasm, deep. loosens adhesions, reduce edema

31

Massage: petrissage

kneading/ rolling of ms. loosen adhesions, improve lymph return, remove metabolic waste. distal to proximal

32

Massage: Tapotement

rapid alternating movements,: cupping, tapping, hacking. increase circulation, stim peripheral nerve endings

33

Massage: vibration

rapid shaking movement for relaxation

34

Electrodes size: current density, impedance, current flow

Small Vs large
Current density: S=increased L=decreased
Impedance: S =inc L= decr
Current flow: S= Decr L= Inc