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Flashcards in ECG Deck (24):
1

Normal sinus rhythm

begins in SA node travels to rest of heart. 60-100bpm

2

sinus bradycardia

<60bpm. normal rhythm

3

Sinus tachycardia

>100bpm. normal rhythm

4

sinus arrhythmia

sinus rhythm but quickening/ slowing of implus from SA node that produces beat to beat variation in rate

5

Sinus Arrest

sinus rhythm but with intermittent failure of impuls in SA or AV node that results in loss of P or QRS waves

6

premature atrial contraction

ectopic focus in atrium initiates pulse before SA node. p wave is premature. very common but may lead to atrial flutter, tachycardia or fib

7

atrial flutter

ectopic very rapid tachycardia. 250-350bpm. occurs with valvular disease, ischemia, MI, hypertension, COPD, etc. get palpitations, lightheaded, angina

8

Atrial fibrilation

common arrhythmia where atria are depoloraized 350-600x/min. palpitations, fatigue, dyspnea, syncope, chest pain

9

1st degree AV block

PR interval longer than 0.2 sec. no real symoptoms or change in cardiac funciton

10

2nd degree AV block

AV conduction disturbance where impulses btwn atria and ventricles fail intermittently.

11

3rd degree AV block

all impulses blocked at the AV node and none a transmitted to ventricles. atria and ventricles are paced independently with atria >vent. medical emergency requiring pacemaker

12

Premature ventricular contractions

ectopic ventricle focus. p wave absent QRS has wide aberrant shape. common from anxiety caffeine, stress, smoking, heart disease

13

V-tach

3 or more PVCs at ventricular rate >150bpm. longer than 30sec is life threatening, can progress to V-fib. caused by MI, cardiomyopathy, valvular disease

14

V-Fib

ventricles do not beat n coordinated fashion, quiver/ fibrillate. No cardiac ouput, unconscious. required defibrillation

15

Ventricular asystole

ventricular standstill with no rhythm. ECG =straight line, requires defibrillation.

16

ST segment depression

sign of ischemia, digitalis toxicity, hypokalemia

17

ST segment elevation

earliest sign of MI. can also indicate benign early repoloraization in normal heart

18

Qwave

marker of infarction; loss of positive electrical voltage from necrosis. Q wave longer than .04 msec and larger than 1/4 amplitude of the R wave

19

T wave inversion

occurs hours or days after MI as a result of delay in repolarization produces by injury. also occurs after R/L BBB, after CVA.

20

indications for terminating exercise stress test

-Drop in SBP >10mmHg despite inc in workload
-mod/severe angina (3/4)
-increasing nervous system symptoms (ataxia, dizziness)
-poor perfusion (cyanosis, pallor)
-v tach sustained
1.0mm elevation in ST segment

21

exercise stress test interpretation

neg test= low probability of CAD
pos test= high probability of CAD

22

normal PR interval

.12-.20 sec

23

Normal QRS

.04-.10 normal ventricular conduction

24

Rate pressure product (RPP)

index of myocardial O2 consumption and coronary blood flow. can correlate to onset of angina. RPP=HRxSBP. Can be used to prescribe exercise below level that would produce angina.