Cardiovascular Drugs Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Pharmacology > Cardiovascular Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Drugs Deck (123):
1

Therapeutic uses of Lidocaine for arrhythmias

Class 1 B tachyarrhythmia drug

IV for ventricular arrhythmias due to general anesthetics, surgery, ischemia and trauma

Digitalis induced arrhythmias

2

Examples of Benzodiazepines

Diltizem

3

Classifications of drugs used to treat Tachyarrhytmias

Class I (A, B, C)

Class II

Class III

Class IV

4

Drug of choice in cats for treatment of Myocardial Hypertrophy

Diltiazem

5

Drug recommended as the first line antihypertensive in cats unless the cause is hyperthyroidism.

Amlopdipine

____________________________

Beta Blocker used if caused by hyperthyroidism

6

Examples of Dihydropyridines

Amlodipine

Nifedipine

7

Mechanism of action of Carvedilol

Nonselective beta blocker and alpha1 blocker

Inhibits endothelin (ET) release

 

8

Drug of choice to treat atrial fibrillation in horses

Quinidine

9

Drugs used in the treatment of bradyarrythmias

Atropine

Isoproterenol

Epinephrine

10

Classifications of Calcium Channel Blockers

Diphenyl Alkylamines

Benzodizepines

Dihydropyridines

11

Examples of Diphenyl Alkylamines

Verapamil

12

Examples of Direct-Acting Vasodilators

Hydralazine

Nitrates

13

Mechanism of action of Calcium Channel Blockers

Inhibit the influx of extracellular calcium → decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits myocardial contraction → dilation of coronary and systemic arteries

14

Cardiac Stimulants

Beta-1 Agonists

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

Glucagon

Calcium Salts

15

Examples of Class III tachyarrhythmia drugs

Bretylium

Amiodarone

Sotalol

16

Other agents used in the treatment of CHF

Oxygen therapy

Morphine sulfate

Aminophylline

Nebulization of ethanol

17

Examples of Angiotension II Antagonists

Losartan

18

Effect of Class III tachyarrhythmia drugs

Prolong action potential duration by blocking potassium channels

19

Examples of Non Selective Alpha Blockers

Phentolamine

Phenoxybenzamine

 

20

Therapeutic uses of Phenytoin

Class 1 B tachyarrhythmia drug

Digitalis induced arrhythmias in dogs ONLY

21

Predisposing factors of tachyarrhythmias caused by digitalis glycoside use

Hypokalemia

Hypomagnesemia

Hypercalcemia

Hypernatremia

Hypothyroidism

Hyperthyroidism

Hyposemia

22

Mechanism of action of Angiotension II Antagonists

Competitive antagonist of angiotension II receptors

23

Examples of Indirect Sympatholytics

Bretylium

24

Sinus bradycardia can be treated with

Atropine

Isoproterenol

25

Types of arrhythmias

Tachyarrhythmia

Bradyarrhythmia

26

Drugs used to treat emergency hypertension or hypertensive crisis

Hydralazine or Sodium Nitroprusside IV

Propranolol or Acepromazine IV

Phentolamine IV

Oral Calcium Blockers - Prazosin or ACE Inhibitors

27

Effect of Class I C tachyarrhythmia drugs

No effect on action potential

28

Adverse effects of Pimobendan

Diarrhea

Vomiting

Inappetence

Seizures

PU/PD

29

Sympatholytic drug types

Non Selective Alpha-Blockers

Selective Alpha1 Blockers

Presynaptic Alpha2 Blockers

Nonselective Beta-Blockers

Selective Beta1 Blockers

Beta and Alpha Blockers

Indirect Sympatholytics

30

Effects of Digitalis Glycosides on the Kidney

Diuretic effect maily secondary to increased cardiac output

31

Example of Beta and Alpha 1 Blockers

Carvedilol

32

Diuretics used to treat hypertension

Hydrochorothiazide

Furosemide

33

Examples of Nitrates

Sodium Nitroprusside

Nitroglycerin

Isosorbide Dinitrate

34

Categories of drugs used to treat Congestive Heart Failure

Positive Inotropic Drugs

Inodilators

Vasodilators

Diuretics

Beta-Blockers

35

Pharmacokinetics of ACE Inhibitors

Oral Administration (Exception - Enalapril)

Food reduces absorption of captopril

Onset and duration of action variable

Activation in liver

36

Therapeutic use of Quinidine

Class 1 A tachyarrhythmia drug

Ventricular arrhythmias

Atrial fibrillation in horses, cattle and large breeds of dogs

37

Cardiovascular effects of Digitalis Glycosides

Positive inotropic effect

Reduction in sinus rate and slowing of AV conduction

Prolonged PR intervals in ECG

Increased mechanical efficiency of the failing heart

Normalization of blood pressure and peripheral resistance

38

Non-drug therapy for congestive heart failure

Restricted Salt Diet

Restricted Exercise

39

Examples of Selective Betal 1 Blockers

Atenolol

40

Examples of Nonselective Beta Blockers

Propranolol

41

Atrial Flutter can be treated with

Digoxin

Quinidine, Procainamide, Propranolol

42

Pharmacokinetics of Pimobendan

Oral administration

Metabolically activated in liver

Metabolites excreted in feces

Bound to plasma proteins

43

Types of Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias

Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial Flutter

Atrial Fibrillation

44

ACE Inhibitor that is least likely to require dosage modification in renal failure patients because of significant excretion in bile

Benazepril

45

Treatment of tachyarrhythmias in cats

Beta-blockers are the drugs of choice for both supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias

46

Mechanism of action for Pimobendan

Acts by sensitixation of the cardiac contractile apparatus to calcium by enhancing interaction between calcium and troponin C complex → Increase intracellular calcium and increas myocardial oxygen consumption by inhibiting PDE II and V

47

Mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors

Inhibition of Angiotension Converting Enzyme → Inhibition of Angiotension II synthesis → Inhibition of Aldosterone → Increase in renin → Increased bradykinin

48

Examples of Beta-1 Agonists

Dopamine

Dobutamie

49

Examples of Beta-Blockers used to treat CHF

Carvedilol

Metoprolol

Atenolol

50

Ventricular Premature Complexes can be treated with

Quinidine, Procainamide, Lidocaine

Phenytoin

Propranolol

51

Ventricular Tachycardia can be treated with

Procainamide, Lidocaine

Quinidine, Phenytoin

Propranolol

52

ACE inhibitors that are long lasting, only need to be administered once daily

Benazepril 

Lisinopril

53

Examples of Presynaptic Alpha2 Agonists

Clonidine

54

Examples of Class IV tachyarrhythmia drugs

Verapamil

Diltiazem

55

Cardiac Asystole/Cardiac Resuscitation can be treated with

Epinephrine

56

Examples of Inodilators

Pimboendan

Inamrinone

Milrinone

57

Adverse effects of Digitalis Glycosides

Narrow safety margin

Increased sensitivity in cats

Tachyarrhythmias

Bradyarrhythmias

GI signs

Alteration of serum potassium

58

Therapeutic uses of Propranolol

Class II tachyarrhythmia drug

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

Digitalis induced tachyarrhythmias

Arrhythmias due to inhalation anesthesia

59

Treatment of bradyarrhythmias caused by the use of digitalis glycosides 

Drug withdrawal

Atropine

60

Effect of Digitalis Glycosides on the Gastrointestinal Tract

GI irritation

Vomiting

61

Categories of Diuretics used in treatment of CHF

Loop Diuretics

Thaizide Diuretics

Potassium Retaining Diuretics

62

Example of Loop Diuretic

Furosemide

63

Class III tachyarrhythmia drug that is a non-selective beta-blocker

Sotalol

64

Vasodilators used to treat hypertension

ACE Inhibitors

Angiotension II Antagonists

Hydralazine

Alpha Blockers

65

Examples of Class I B tachyarrhythmia drugs

Lidocaine

Phenytoin

Toxainide

Mexiletine

Aprinidine

66

Atrial Tachycardia can be treated with 

Digoxin

Procainamide, Propranlol

Quinidine, Phenytoin

67

Therapeutic uses of ACE Inhibitors

Congestive Heart Failure

Hypertension

Chronic renal insufficiency - cats

68

Mechanism of action of Digoxin

Inhibits Na K ATPase → increases intracellular calcium resulting in positive inotropic effect

69

Contraindications of Pimobendan

Should not be used in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

When increase of cardiac output is physically impossible

70

Effect of Class I B tachyarrhythmia drugs

Shortens action potential

71

Therapeutic uses of Verapamil and Diltiazem

Class IV tachyarrhythmia drug

Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias

Myocardial hypertrophy

72

Examples of Class I C tachyarrhythmia drugs

Flecainide

Encainide

Lorcainide

73

Examples of selective alpha 1 agonist

Phenylephrine

74

Mechanism of action of Hydralazine

Increase local concentrations of PGI2 → inhibits calcium influx into smooth muscle of arteries

75

Examples of Positive Inotropic Drugs

Digitalis glycosides

Beta-1 agonists

76

Example of Potassium Retaining Diuretic

Spironolactone

Triameterene

Amiloride

77

Atrial Fibrillation can be treated with

Digoxin

Propranolol

Quinidine, Procainamide

78

Mechanism of action of Nitrates on vasculature

Formation of reactive radial nitric oxide (NO) → Activation of Guanylyl cyclase → Increase in cyclic GMP → Stimulation of GMP-dependent protein kinase → Alteration of phosphorylation of proteins and dephosphorylation of myosine light chain → Relaxation of smooth muscle of blood vessels

79

Types of vasodilatory drugs

Sympatholytic Drugs

ACE inhibitors

Angiotension II Antagonists

Direct Acting Vasodilators

Calcium Channel Blockers

80

Examples of Class II tachyarrhythmia drugs

Propranolol

Timolol

Pindolol

Oxyprenolol

Alprenolol

Atenlol

Esmolol

Metoprolol

81

Treatment of tachyarrhythmias caused by use of digitalis glycosides

Drug withdrawal

Potassium IV

Anti-arrhythmic drugs

Cholestyramine

Digoxin Immune Fab

82

Examples of ACE inhibitors

Captopril

Enalapril

Lisinopril

Benazepril

83

84

Effect of Class I A tachyarrhythmia drugs

Prolong action potential

85

Clinical use of Angiotension II Antagonists

Antihypertensive

86

Mechanisms of arrhythmias

Abnormal automaticity

Abnormal conduction - reentry

Disturbances in both automaticity and impulse conduction

87

Types of ventricular tachyarrhythmias

Ventricular premature complexes

Ventricular tachycardia

88

Adverse Effects of ACE Inhibitors

Hypotension

Decrease intraglomerular pressure → Decrease GFR → Systemic hypertension and azotemia

Captopril - may cause idiosyncratic glomerular disease in dogs,  and GI side effects

89

Trade name of Pimobendan

Vetmedin

90

Examples of Vasodilators

ACE Inhibitors

Hydralazine

Nitrates

Prazosin

91

Therapeutic use of Procainamide

Class 1 A tachyarrhythmia drug

Ventricular arrhythmias > Atrial arrhythmias

92

Examples of Nitrates that have an effect on vasculature

Sodium Nitroprusside

Nitroglycerin

Isosorbide Dinitrate

93

Common Digitalis glycosides

Digitoxin

Digoxin

94

Examples of Class I A tachyarrhthymic drugs

Quinidine

Procainamide

Disopyramide

95

Arrhythmia

Abnormality in heart rate and rhythm - any rhythm that is not normal sinus rhythm

96

Examples of causes of arrhythmia

Imbalance of SNS and PSNS

Change in serum potassium, calcium or magnesium

Hypoxemia

Acidosis

Mechanical trauma

Myocardial disease

Cardiac ischemia

Myocardial infaction 

Drugs

97

Treatment of GI adverse effects caused by digitalis glycosides

Drug withdrawal

Fluid Therapy

98

Examples of Selective Alpha 1 Blockers

Prazosin

Terazosin

Doxazosin

99

Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers on the heart

Negative inotropic effect

Negative chronotropic effect

Increase oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue

Decrease afterload

Coronary vasodilation

100

Pharmacokinetics of Digitalis Glycosides

Oral administration or slow IV in emergency

Elixir bioavailability > tablet

Metabolized by liver

Undergoes enteroheptaic recycling

Excretion renal (dogs/horses) or renal and hepatic (cats)

101

Classifications of antihypertensive drugs

Diuretics

Beta-Blockers

Vasodilators

 

102

Beta-Blockers used to treat hypertension

Propranolol

Atenolol

103

Therapeutic uses of Pimobendan

Congestive Heart Failure - dogs

Adjunctive therapy for Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) and Chronic Degenerative Valvular Disease (CVD)

104

Examples of Beta-1 Agonists

Isoproterenol

Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

Dopamine

105

Examples of ACE Inhibitors

Captopril

Enalapril

Benazepril

Lisinopril

106

Examples of nonselective alpha agonists

Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

107

Classification of Pimobendan

Positive inotrope and balanced vasodilator

108

Therapeutic uses of Bretylium

Class III tachyarrhythmia drug

Refractory and recurrent tachyarrythmias

109

Example of Thiazide Diuretic

Hydrochlorothiazide

Chlorothiazide

 

110

Types of vasoconsticting drugs

Nonselective Alpha Agonists

Selective Alpha 1 Agonists

Direct and Indirect Sympathomimetics

111

Example of Direct and Indirect Sympathomimetics

Ephedrine

Pseudoephedrine

Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)

112

Effect of Class II tachyarrhythmia drugs

Beta-blockers

113

Therapeutic uses of Digitalis Glycosides

Congestive Heart Failure

Atrial Arrhythmias

114

Adverse effects of Calcium Channel Blockers

Bradycardia and AV block

Hypotension

GI side effects

Elevated liver enzymes

115

Drug of choice to treat Phenochromocytoma- Induced Hypertension

Phenoxybenzamine

116

Mechanism of action of Class IV tachyarrhythmia drugs

Calcium channel blockers

117

Types of bradyarrhythmias

Sinus bradycardia

Second-degrre AV block

Cardiac asystole- cardiac resuscitation

118

Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers on blood vessels

Decrease peripheral resistance

Decrease systemic blood pressue

119

Therapeutic uses of Calcium Channel Blockers

Antiarrhythmic (Class IV)

Antihypertensive

Myocardial Hypertrophy

Antianginal - Ischemic Heart Disease

120

Adverse gastrointestinal effects seen with use of digitalis glycosides

Anorexia

Vomiting

Diarrhea

121

Mechanism of action of Class I Tachyarrhythmic drugs

Sodium channel blockers

122

Example of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor

Aminophylline

123

Second-Degree AV Blocks can be treated with

Atropine

Isoproterenol

Glucagon