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Flashcards in Introduction (Shokry) Deck (66):
1

T/F: Drugs can act as antigens or haptens

True

2

Phenoxybenzamine and Epinephrine is an example of _______________ antagonism

Phenoxybenzamine and Epinephrine is an example of noncompetitive pharmacological antagonism

3

Pharmacodynamics involves

Action of drugs

Mechanisms of action

Structure-Activity relationships

4

Factors related to the animal

Species

Breed

Individual

Body Weight

Age

Sex

Temperament

Idiosyncrasy

Hypersensitivity

Disease

Tolerance

5

Adverse effect of captoprin in dogs

Renal disease

6

________ route of administration has a slower onset and longer duration of action.

Oral route of administration has a slower onset and longer duration of action.

7

Factors related to the drug

Route of administration

Timing of administration

Cumulation

Drug- drug interaction

8

Alteration of biotransformation occurs when

Enzyme inducers decrease the effects of other drugs or enzyme inhibitors increase the effect of other drugs

9

Reactive Drug Metabolites (RDM)

Bind to cellular macromolecules resulting in cellular damage and usually involve the immune system

10

Antagonism

Administration of a drug results in decrease in the pharmacological response of another drug

11

Thiopental tolerance when given to an animal under phenobarbital treatment is an example of 

Cross tolerance

12

Phenobarbital is an enzyme (inducer/ihibitor)

Phenobarbital is an enzyme (inducer/ihibitor)

13

Drugs that act as antigens cause hypersensitivity reactions by

Antigen-Antibody reactions

14

Chloramphenicol is an enzyme (inducer/ihibitor)

Chloramphenicol is an enzyme (inducer/ihibitor)

15

Acquired tolerance can occur due to

Enzyme induction

Increased excretion

Down- regulation of receptors

16

Three general factors that modify drug dosage and response

Factors related to the animal

Factors related to the drug

Factors related to the environment

17

Alteration of excretion occurs when

Urinary alkalinizers enhance renal excretion of weak acidic drugs or when urniary acidifiers enhance excretion of weak basic drugs

18

Drug

Any chemical that is capable of altering biological function

19

Fluoroquinolones given to young patients cause

Fluoroquinolones given to young patients cause cartilage damage

20

Tetracyclines given in young patients cause

Tetracyclines given in young patients cause yellow discoloration of teeth

21

Clinical signs of idiosyncratic reactions

Fever, Urticaria, Anaphylaxis, Hematologic and Organ Toxicities

22

Pharmacotherapeutics

Therapeutic uses of the drug

23

Glucocorticoids given to young patients cause

Glucocorticoids given to young patients cause growth inhibition

24

Drugs that act as haptens  cause hypersensitivity reactions by

Interaction with the immune system

25

Idiosyncratic reactions are typically caused by ______________

Idiosyncratic reactions are typically caused by Reactive Drug Metabolites (RDMs)

26

Adverse effect of enrofloxacin in cats

Retinal damage

27

Examples of drugs that act as haptens

Penicillin

Sulfonamides

Aspirin

Morphine

Tubocurarine

28

Collies are sensitive to __________

Collies are sensitive to Ivermectin

29

Types of tolerance

Natural

Acquired

30

Cumulation

Rate of elimination is slower than the rate of absorption

31

Alteration of absorption occurs when

Drugs inhibit or enhance absorption of other drugs

32

Pharmacodynamic Drug-Drug Interactions

Two drugs act on the same receptors

33

Pharmacokinetics involves

Absorption

Distribution

Biotransformation

Excretion

34

Summation

Sum of the effects of the drugs

1+1=2

_________________________

Two anticholinergics

35

Antihistamines and barbiturates given to young patients can cause

Antihistamines and barbiturates given to young patients can cause hyperactivity

36

Alteration of distribution occurs when

Strongly bound drugs to plasma proteins displace weakly bound drugs increasing their effects

37

Epinephrine and Histamine is an example of ___________ antagonism.

Epinephrine and Histamine is an example of physiological antagonism.

38

Calcium given orally inhibits absorption of ____________

Calcium given orally inhibits absorption of tetracyclines

39

EDTA and Lead is an example of ____________ antagonism

EDTA and Lead is an example of chemical antagonism

40

Boxers are sensitive to ___________.

Boxers are sensitive to phenothiazines.

41

Competative and Non-Competitive Antagonism are subsets of ____________ Antagonism

Competative and Non-Competitive Antagonism are subsets of Pharmacological Antagonism

42

Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions can involve the alteration of

Absorption

Distribution

Biotransformation

Excretion

43

Important changes in geriatric patients that modify drug dosage

Decreased metabolism, cardiac output, renal function, hepatic blood flow

Chronic disease

Changes in body composition

44

Australian terriers are tolerant to _____________ combination but sensitive to its toxic effects.

Australian terriers are tolerant to droperidol-fentanyl combination but sensitive to its toxic effects.

45

Epinephrine SQ inhibits systemic absorption of ______________.

Epinephrine SQ inhibits systemic absorption of local anesthetics.

46

Atropine and Acetylcholine is an example of _______________ antagonism

Atropine and Acetylcholine is an example of competitive pharmacological antagonism

47

Oral administration, generally, absorption is faster (before/after) meals.

Oral administration, generally, absorption is faster (before/after) meals.

48

Types of Antagonism

Chemical

Physiological

Pharmacological

49

Prior exposure is required in __________ reactions

Prior exposure is required in hypersensitivity reactions

50

Chronic phenobarbital therapy can affect _____________ in young patients.

Chronic phenobarbital therapy can affect learning and behavior in young patients.

51

_________ route of administration has a rapid onset and short duration of action

Intravenous (IV) route of administration has a rapid onset and short duration of action

52

Important changes in pediatric patients that require dosage modification

Decreased drug metabolism, drug excretion, and blood brain barrier

Increased total body water

Decreased plasma protein binding

Susceptibility to adverse effects

53

____________ locally is a local anesthetic but given IV is antiarrhythmic.

Lidocaine locally is a local anesthetic but given IV is antiarrhythmic.

54

Undesirable drug reactions are important in using drugs with ________________

Undesirable drug reactions are important in using drugs with narrow safety margin

55

Tachyphylaxis

Acute acquired tolerance

56

_______________ given orally causes cathartic effect but given IV causes cardiac depression and muscle relaxation

Magnesium Sulfate given orally causes cathartic effect but given IV causes cardiac depression and muscle relaxation

57

Environmental factors that can modify drug dosage

Ambient temperature

Humidity 

Oxygen

58

Drug-Drug Interactions

Administration of drugs concurrently or sequentially

59

Idiosyncrasy

Genetically determined unpredictable abnormal reactions

60

Potentiation

Combined effect is greater than the sum of the two drugs acting independently 

1+1 >2

________________________

Probencid -Penicillin G

Epinephrine - Procaine

61

Pharmacology

Science that deals with actions of drugs on living systems

62

Why is it important to take body weight of an animal into consideration when calculating drug dosage?

Dosages are usually calculated to the average adult individuals

63

Cross Tolerance

Tolerance due to another drug given

64

Tolerance

Unusual resistance to the ordinary dose of the drug

65

Adverse effect of griseofulvin in cats

Liver damage

66

Synergism

Exaggeration of the effect of a drug by giving another drug that has the same action

1+1 > 2

_________________________

Neuroleptic - Inhalation Anesthetic

Trimethoprim - Sulfonamide