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Flashcards in Cardiovascular (Peter) Deck (75)
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1

distribution of blood by volume

9% pulmonary circuit
7% inside the heart
84% systemic circuit

2

pressure and resistance in the pulmonary circuit vs systemic circuit

medium resistance and pressure in the pulmonary circuit vs. high resistance and pressure in the systemic circuit

3

inlet valves prevent

high-pressure blood in the pumping chamber from returning to the veins

4

function of the appendage/auricle

increase the capacity of the atria

5

how does having the inlet and outlet on the same end of the heart improve its function?

chamber can shorten in length as well as in width

6

pulmonary vein orientation vs vena cava

pulmonary vein(s) are very horizontal while the vena cava is very vertical

7

the _____ of the heart is the pointed tip of the left ventricle. At the opposite end from the _____ is the _____.

the _apex_ of the heart is the pointed tip of the left ventricle. At the opposite end from the _apex_ is the _base_.

8

peak pressure of...
1. left atrium
2. left ventricle
3. right atrium
4. right ventricle

1. left atrium = 8mmHg
2. left ventricle = 120mmHg
3. right atrium = 5mmHg
4. right ventricle = 27mmHg

9

inlet valves constructed of

fibrous connective tissue

10

fate of the blood from the gut

the deoxygenated, nutrient rich blood travels to the liver via the hepatic portal vein

11

function of chordae tendineae

prevent the bicuspid and tricuspid valve from bursting upwards into the atrium during systole

12

name of the ligament between the aorta and pulmonary trunk

ligamentum arteriosum

13

names and location of the atrioventricular valves

bicuspid/mitral on the left
tricuspid on the right

14

chordae tendineae are loose during

distole

15

ratio of size of ventricles in a foetus

the same boiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

16

outlet valves names and location

SEMILUNAR VALVES
pulmonary on the right
aortic on the left

17

ratio of peak pressure in the LV:RV

5:1

18

ratio of wall thickness in the LV:RV

3:1

19

openings to the coronary arteries

in the aorta, just after the semilunar aortic valve

20

how many cusps in the outlet valves? cords or nah?

3 cusps, no cords

21

The ____ of the heart points inferiorly and anteriorly to the left. About 1/3 of the mass of the heart lies to the _____ of the midline of the body and about 2/3 to the _____. The right border of the heart is formed mainly by the ____ ______. The inferior border is formed mainly by the _____ ______. The left border is formed mainly by the _____ ______.

The _apex_ of the heart points inferiorly and anteriorly to the left. About 1/3 of the mass of the heart lies to the _right_ of the midline of the body and about 2/3 to the _left_. The right border of the heart is formed mainly by the _right_ _atrium_. The inferior border is formed mainly by the _right_ _ventricle_. The left border is formed mainly by the _left_ _ventricle_.

22

Pericardium made of (inner and outer wall)

single layer of squamous mesothelial cells

23

what constitutes the heart wall

endocardium - myocardium - epicardium (visceral pericardium)

24

what constitutes the pericardium

epicardium (visceral pericardium) - pericardial space (serous fluid) - parietal pericardium - fibrous pericardium (tough fibrous sac)

25

cardiac tamponade

blood in the pericardial space

26

fibrous skeleton of the heart structure

2 complete fibrous rings around the mitral and aortic valves and 1 incomplete ring around the tricuspid valve

27

pericardium function

no friction when the heart beats

28

what is present where the fibrous skeleton is incomplete?

fatty connective tissue

29

relative speed of conduction and reason:
1. SA node - Atrial myocardium
2. AV node
3. AV bundle (bundle of his) - Purkinje fibre

1. SA node - Atrial myocardium = SLOW 0.5m/s
- atrial contraction

2. AV node = VERY SLOW 0.05m/s
- 100ms delay

3. AV bundle (bundle of his) - Purkinje fibre = FAST 5m/s
- even ventricular constriction (systole)

30

ventricular filling

- DIASTOLE.
- starts when pressure in the ventricle drops below the pressure in the atrium (less than 5mmHg).
- Mitral valve opens quietly and blood enters the ventricle to ~80% of its capacity.
- Accounts for half the total cycle time