Lab 3 - The Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 3 - The Heart Deck (35)
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1

sheep and human hearts differ mainly by the shape of their...

atria

2

how does the vena cava in a sheep differ to that of a human

3 major branches - L anterior, R anterior and a posterior vena cava

3

head-end of a human/sheep =

cranial

4

bottom end of a human/sheep =

caudal

5

the caudal end of a sheep is also known as the...

posterior

6

how do you know that you are looking at the ventral view of the heart?

- auricles will be pointed towards you
- ligamentum arteriosum visible
-curved

7

the interventricular sulcus marks the position of...

the septum and the course of one of the coronary arteries and a cardiac vein

8

apex formed by which ventricle?

left ventricle

9

which great artery is visible with no disection

the pulmonary trunk

10

how do you know that you are looking at the dorsal view of the heart?

- flat surface
- vena cava clearly visible

11

name of the fibrous bridge between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta

ligamentum arteriosum

12

name of the first branch of the aorta

brachiocephalic artery

13

if you removed the atria and large arteries and you looked down at the four openings, which opening would be the most ventral? what would emerge in the centre? would the ventricles be more ventral or dorsal?

Pulmonary trunk is the most ventral.
Aorta would arise in the centre.
The ventricles are towards the dorsal side

14

How can you differentiate the auricle from the atrium?

auricle has an irregular internal surface of trabeculae whereas the main atrium is smooth. Different origins in the developing embryo.

15

trabeculae

rods of muscle fibres which cross over and weave around each other

16

moderator band

- slender, muscular bridge which traverses the right ventricle.
- no mechanical function.
- contains purkinje fibres for conduction.

17

chordae tendineae when mitral valve is open and closed

loose when mitral valve is opened
tight when mitral valve is closed

18

how many coronary artery openings? where are they found?

2 openings found in the aorta, just inside the aortic valve flaps

19

where do the cardiac veins return their blood

via tiny perforations in the wall of the small left anterior vena cava

20

coronary ostia

openings to the coronary arteries

21

which structure allows blood to cross from the right to the left atrium in the sheep fetus?

foramen ovale

22

fossa ovalis

- translucent membrane ,which covers the hole in the atrial septum, in the the adult sheep
- found in the posterior vena cava

23

relative wall thickness:
RV
LV
RA
LA

relative wall thickness:
RV = MEDIUM
LV = THICK
RA = THIN
LA = THIN

24

when do the atria fill with blood?

during ventricular systole and isovolumetric relaxation

25

closure of the ________ and _________ valves causes the first heart sound ("____").
closure of the ________ and _________ valves causes the second heart sound ("____")

closure of the _mitral_ and _tricuspid_ valves causes the first heart sound ("_lub_").
closure of the _aortic_ and _pulmonary_ valves causes the second heart sound ("_dub_")

26

when are all four heart valves closed

- isovolumetric contraction
- isovolumetric relaxation

27

max and min pressure in the left ventricle

max = 120mmHg
min = 5mmHg

28

rupture of papillary muscle

- caused by myocardial infarction
- valve collapses and blood leaks onto atrium

29

which side of the heart is the flap covering the foramen ovale

left

30

the ligamentum arteriosum is a remnant of a large fetal vessel called the _____ _______. This vessel carried blood from the ________ ______ to the ______.

the ligamentum arteriosum is a remnant of a large fetal vessel called the _ductus_ _arteriosus_. This vessel carried blood from the _pulmonary_ _trunk_ to the _aorta_.