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Flashcards in Renal System Deck (79)
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1

renal capsule, adipose capsule and renal fascia are all what type of tissue?

connective tissue

2

renal capsule

- Physical barrier - protection against trauma
- maintains the SHAPE of the kidney

3

Adipose capsule

- padding - physical protection
- Maintains the POSITION

4

Renal fascia

- ANCHORS the kidneys to the surrounding structures

5

adipose capsule, renal capsule, and renal fascia in the order that you find them (moving in towards the kidney)

Renal fascia
adipose capsule
renal capsule

6

many __________ (of which there are around one million per kidney), feed into the _________ _________. Many of these lead into the __________ _______, which feeds into the ______ then the ________ _______ ("cups"). Finally entering the _______, before leaving the kidney via the _______ and entering the bladder.

many _nephrons_ (of which there are around one million per kidney), feed into the _collecting_ _duct_. Many of these lead into the _papillary_ _duct_, which feeds into the _minor_ then the _major_ _calyces_ ("cups"). Finally entering the _pelvis_, before leaving the kidney via the _ureter_ and entering the bladder.

7

what constitutes a lobe?

Medullary pyramid + overlying cortex + 1/2 renal column from each side

8

how many lobes?

8-12 per kidney

9

where are renal corpuscles found

cortex only.

10

parenchyma

functional portion of the kidney

11

fenestration of the glomerular endothelium prevents...

blood cells being filtered out of the blood, but allows all plasma proteins to pass through

12

basal lamina of glomerulus

prevents filtration of larger proteins

13

slit membrane / diaphragm between __________. Prevents... ?

slit membrane between pedicels prevents medium-sized proteins from being filtered out of the blood plasma

14

parietal of the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

simple squamous epithelium forms the outer wall

15

visceral of the Bowman's capsule

Podocytes (modified endothelium)

16

Glomerulus tissue

endothelium

17

Bowman's capsule tissue

epithelium

18

glomerulus

specialised network / knot of capillaries

19

2 thing that make up the renal corpuscle

1. Glomerulus
2. Glomerular capsule / Bowman's capsule

20

what is the Basal lamina made up of?

the basement membranes of both the endothelium and the podocytes 'crossing-over'

21

2 most Important functions of the kidney

- Regulation of water and electrolyte balance (osmolality)
- Regulation of arterial pressure

22

(other) functions of the kidney

- excretion of metabolic wastes or foreign chemicals
- Regulation of blood pH
- Regulation of erythrocyte production
- regulation of hormone production e.g. vitamin D
- regulating of blood glucose levels

23

Homeostasis

maintenance of a (nearly) constant internal environment

24

osmolality

measure of the effective water gradient, assuming that the solute is COMPLETELY IMPERMEANT.
It is simply a count of the number of dissolved particles

25

tonicity

tendency of a solution to resist expansion

26

isosmotic and isotonic

isosmotic when both solutions contain the same number of dissolved particles.
isotonic when there is no movement of water

27

cell placed in hypertonic solution will ______, whereas a cell placed in a hypotonic solution will ______.

cell placed in hypertonic solution will _shrink_, whereas a cell placed in a hypotonic solution will _swell_.

28

osmotic pressure

the pressure required to prevent net water movement

29

what percentage of males, females and infants are fluids?

males ~60%
females ~50%
infant ~65-75%

30

what makes up the body fluids?

2/3 Intracellular fluid
1/3 extracellular fluid