Flashcards in Renal System Deck (79)
renal capsule, adipose capsule and renal fascia are all what type of tissue?
- Physical barrier - protection against trauma
- maintains the SHAPE of the kidney
- padding - physical protection
- Maintains the POSITION
- ANCHORS the kidneys to the surrounding structures
adipose capsule, renal capsule, and renal fascia in the order that you find them (moving in towards the kidney)
many __________ (of which there are around one million per kidney), feed into the _________ _________. Many of these lead into the __________ _______, which feeds into the ______ then the ________ _______ ("cups"). Finally entering the _______, before leaving the kidney via the _______ and entering the bladder.
many _nephrons_ (of which there are around one million per kidney), feed into the _collecting_ _duct_. Many of these lead into the _papillary_ _duct_, which feeds into the _minor_ then the _major_ _calyces_ ("cups"). Finally entering the _pelvis_, before leaving the kidney via the _ureter_ and entering the bladder.
what constitutes a lobe?
Medullary pyramid + overlying cortex + 1/2 renal column from each side
how many lobes?
8-12 per kidney
where are renal corpuscles found
functional portion of the kidney
fenestration of the glomerular endothelium prevents...
blood cells being filtered out of the blood, but allows all plasma proteins to pass through
basal lamina of glomerulus
prevents filtration of larger proteins
slit membrane / diaphragm between __________. Prevents... ?
slit membrane between pedicels prevents medium-sized proteins from being filtered out of the blood plasma
parietal of the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
simple squamous epithelium forms the outer wall
visceral of the Bowman's capsule
Podocytes (modified endothelium)
Bowman's capsule tissue
specialised network / knot of capillaries
2 thing that make up the renal corpuscle
2. Glomerular capsule / Bowman's capsule
what is the Basal lamina made up of?
the basement membranes of both the endothelium and the podocytes 'crossing-over'
2 most Important functions of the kidney
- Regulation of water and electrolyte balance (osmolality)
- Regulation of arterial pressure
(other) functions of the kidney
- excretion of metabolic wastes or foreign chemicals
- Regulation of blood pH
- Regulation of erythrocyte production
- regulation of hormone production e.g. vitamin D
- regulating of blood glucose levels
maintenance of a (nearly) constant internal environment
measure of the effective water gradient, assuming that the solute is COMPLETELY IMPERMEANT.
It is simply a count of the number of dissolved particles
tendency of a solution to resist expansion
isosmotic and isotonic
isosmotic when both solutions contain the same number of dissolved particles.
isotonic when there is no movement of water
cell placed in hypertonic solution will ______, whereas a cell placed in a hypotonic solution will ______.
cell placed in hypertonic solution will _shrink_, whereas a cell placed in a hypotonic solution will _swell_.
the pressure required to prevent net water movement
what percentage of males, females and infants are fluids?