Flashcards in Lab 4 - Reproductive system Deck (27)
Head of epididymis
- fluid absorbed, concentrates the sperm
- sperm stimulate to move their tails and become motile
major site of sperm storage
sperm + seminal vesicle fluid travel from the seminal vesicle to the prostatic urethra
where does fertilisation occur?
ampulla of the uterine (fallopian) tube
looking at a section of a testis, under a light microscope, would you be more likely to see primary or secondary spermatocytes and why?
likely to be PRIMARY because secondary have a very short lifespan
spermatogonia are _____ cells and are considered ____-_____.
spermatogonia are _stem_ cells and are considered _non_-_self_.
how does the menstrual cycle work in a normal female?
FSH stimulation leads to increased follicular growth
this leads to increased oestrogen
oestrogen threshold reached
switch from -ve to +ve feedback at the pituitary
surge of LH
corpus luteum releases progesterone until it regresses
what happens to the females reproductive system when implantation does not occur?
progesterone and oestrogen levels drop and the endometrial lining is lost
what happens to the females reproductive system when implantation occurs?
developing offspring secretes human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCg) which prevents the corpus luteum from disintegrating and stimulates release of progesterone and oestrogen.
what happens to hormone levels when fertilisation occurs?
oestrogen and progesterone levels continue to rise
what factors could contribute to a female having very low hormone levels?
- no enough fat to produce steroid hormones
- no ovaries
- pituitary tumour affecting HPG
- FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD SYNDROME
what happens to hormone levels during menopause?
low oestrogen and progesterone leads to less negative feedback on the pituitary and FSH and LH levels will rise as a result
features exclusive to the primordial follicle?
- NO ZONA PELLUCIDA
- surrounded by squamous "follicular" cells
how can you tell a primary follicle apart from a primordial follicle?
a primary follicle will have ZONA PELLUCIDA and also CUBOIDAL GRANULOSA CELLS
When the follicle develops the ______ it is called a secondary follicle
When the follicle develops the _antrum_ it is called a secondary follicle
what is different between the oocyte in the secondary follicle and the Graafian follicle?
secondary oocyte in the mature, graafian follicle
which structure is exclusive to the Graafian follicle?
another name for primary follicle
condensation of stromal cells
translucent, acellular layer of glycoproteins, which is secreted by the oocyte
how do simple pregnancy tests work?
presence of hCG in urine
what are the names of the hormone producing cells on the testes and ovaries? what hormones?
- in males, leydig cells produce testosterone
- in females, granulose cells produce oestrogen
male condom is a ________ method of contraception
male condom is a _barrier_ method of contraception
surgical methods of contraception in man and woman
- vasectomy in males, where the vas deferens is cut and tied
- tubal ligation in females, where the fallopian tubes are tied
what is the female condom called and how does it work?
called a diaphragm and is placed at the top of the vagina, covering the cervix. Barrier method.
hormones in "the pill" and what they do
- progesterone - increases mucus to stop sperm
- oestrogen - negative feedback to the anterior pituitary = no FSH/LH