Cardiovascular System/Blood Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Cardiovascular System/Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System/Blood Deck (57):
1

Cardiovascular System: Function (4)

1. Transporation & Exchange of:
a. Oxygen
b. Nutrients (glucose)
c. Hormones
d. Ions (Ca, K, Na, etc.)
2. Generates blood pressure
3. Blood vessels transport blood
4. Heart and blood vessels regulate blood flow

2

Heart location

Thoracic cavity

3

Apex (2)

Apex: creates the cardiac notch in the left lung
- rests superior to the diaphram

4

Base (2)

- Superior portion of the heart
- Blood vessels emerge

5

Layers surrounding the heart (3)

1. Epicardium (Pericardium)
2. Myocardium
3. Endocardium

6

Epicardium (2)

Double wall sac that surrounds the heart
AKA Pericardium

7

Myocardium

Cardiac muscle layer; pumps the blood

8

Endocardium

Inner layer that lines the heart chambers

9

Physiology of cardiac muscle: contraction (3)

- Do not require nerve impulses to contract
- Intrinsic conduction system/nodal system
- Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

10

Intrinsic (Def)

"In the house"

11

Intrinsic conduction system of the heart (3)

- Similar to cross between nerve and skeletal muscle
- Creates action potential (AP) --> muscle
contraction
- 1 direction: atria --> ventricle

12

Problems with nodal system: Cardiac Arrhythmia

Uncoordinated electrical impulses

13

Problems with nodal system: Tachycardia

Heart rate over 100 beats per minute

14

Problems with nodal system: Bradycardia

Heart rate is below 60 bpm

15

Complete heart beat (3)

- both atria and ventricles contract and relax
- Average = 75 bpm
- Systole & Diastole

16

Systole

Heart contraction

17

Diastole

Heart relaxation

18

Cardiac cycle Step 1: Mid / Late diastole (5)

1. Complete relaxation
2. Low heart pressure
3. AV valves open/SL valves closed
4. Passive blood flow from A --> V
5. Contraction of atria --> 20% remaining blood is pushed into ventricles (atrial systole)

19

Cardiac cycle Step 2: Ventricular systole (4)

1. Atria diastole (continuous filling of blood)
2. Ventricles contract
3. Pressure builds in the ventricles
- SL valves are pushed open
- AV valves are closed
4. Blood pushed into pulmonary trunk and aorta

20

Cardiac cycle Step 3: Early diastole (5)

1. Ventricles relax
2. SL valves snap shut
3. Blood gathers in atria creates high pressure
4. AV valves open
5. Blood starts to flow into ventricles

21

Heart sounds: Lub-dup; Lub (2)

- Closing of the AV valves
- Longer and louder

22

Heart sounds: Lub-dup; dup (2)

- Closing of the SL valves
- Short and sharp

23

Cardiac Output

- Amount of blood pumped per minute

24

Stroke Volume

- Amount of blood pumped per beat

25

Cardiac Output is determined by...

Heart rate x Stroke volume

26

Neural Control: Sympathetic Division (2)

- Physical or Emotional stress (Fight or Flight)
- Stimulates SA --> AV nodes

27

Neural Control: Parasympathetic Division (2)

- Normal Activities
- Slows down hyperactive activity to return to normal range

28

Muscular pumps in veins: modification (3)

1. larger lumen
2. presence of valves, which prevents backflow
3. skeletal muscle (muscular pump)

29

Hypertension: Causes (3)

1. High water or salt intake
2. Damaged kidneys
3. Hormonal imbalance

30

Hypertension: Treatment (3)

1. Water pills/diuretics
2. Medication to open blood vessels
3. Calcium channel blockers

31

Blood consists of (3):

1. 55% Plasma
2. 1% WBCs/Platelets
3. 45% Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

32

Blood: Hematocrit (3)

% of red blood cells in whole blood
- 47% in males
- 42% in females

33

Blood Plasma (2)

- 90% water
- Solutes

34

Blood Solutes (6):

1. Gases (O2, CO2)
2. Hormones
3. Electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-)
4. Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
5. Nutrients: glucose, AA, proteins, Fatty acids, glycerol
6. Plasma Proteins

35

Blood: Plasma Proteins (3)

1. Albumin (60% of all plasma proteins
Liver--> osmotic pressure
2. Globulin (36% of plasma proteins)
Liver --> transporter of vitamins, metal ions, lipids
3. Fibrinogen: 4% plasma proteins
Liver --> Blood clotting factor

36

Blood: Function (3)

1. Distribution & Transportation of O2, nutrients, toxins, etc.
2. Regulation
- temperature
- pH
- Fluid Balance
3. Protection
- Prevent blood loss (clotting)
- Prevent infection (WBC)

37

Blood is _________ tissue

Specialized connective

38

Hemoglobin protein (4)

1. Heme: red pigment
2. Iron @ center of heme --> bind to individual oxygen molecule
3. Globin: 4 polypeptide chain (2 a, 2 b)
4. About 250 million hemoblobin/RBC (=1 bil O2)

39

Transport of gasses: Oxyhemoglobin (3)

- loads O2 in the lungs
- O2 binding with Fe
- Ruby red

40

Transport of gases: Deoxyhemoglobin (3)

- Release of O2 to tissue
- Separation of O2 from Fe
- Dark red

41

Transport of gases: Carbaminohemoglobin (2)

- CO2 binding with globin
- Tissue --> lungs

42

Pacemaker replaces

AV node

43

Hematopoiesis definition

Red Blood Cell Production

44

Hematopoiesis (2)

1. Formation and maturation
- Red bone marrow --> enter through sinusoids
- 100 billion new cells/day
* Production should be = to destruction

2. Original cells
- Hematopoietic stem cells (undifferentiated)

45

Hormonal regulation for erythropoiesis

Too little RBC in circulation

46

Erythropoietin (EPO) (2)

- Hormone
- Made in the kidney (primary) and liver

47

Erythropoietin (EPO): Homeostasis (3)

- Low level of oxygen (hypoxia)
- Cells of kidney recognize decrease in O2 --> Signal EPO production
- Change in maturation rate of RBC

48

Hypoxia

Low levels of O2

49

Too many RBCs (3)

- high O2 levels
- EPO [ ] decreases
- Decreases the rate of erythropoiesis

50

Blood: Iron

- 60% of body iron --> hemoglobin
- Storage of iron --> spleen and liver

51

Disease: Anemia
(Def & Symptoms)

- Shortage of RBC --> Low levels of O2
- Symptoms:
-Pale
- Fatigued
- Short of breath

52

Disease: Anemia (Causes)

1. Low RBC production
2. Blood loss
3. Lack of B12 vitamins (needed for division)
4. High level of RBC destruction

53

Disease: Sickle cell anemia

- Abnormal Hb (beta chain change)
- Blood transfusion

54

Buffy Layer- WBC - Leukocytes %

- Less than 1% of blood

55

Buffy Layer- WBC - Leukocytes Function

1. Destruction of foreign/infecting/pathogenic cells
2. Destruction of tumors/infected cells
3. Removal of toxins

56

Buffy Coat Components (5)
(Know 1st and last)

1. Neutrophils (50% - 70%)
2. Lymphocytes
3. Monocytes --> Macrophages
4. Eosinophil
5. Basophils (0.5% - 1%)

57

Buffy Coat Components
(Acronym)

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas