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Flashcards in Case Studies Deck (20):

Process of EIA

understand likely envt impacts of a proposed development

identify mitigation measures and feed into design

inform planning decision- forms part of the planning application


Why undertake EIA

it is the law

EU directive 2011/92/EU

Town and country planning regulations 2011
Marine works regulations 2007
Infrastructure planning (EIA) 2009

a better more sustainable development


Pembury Hospital

Development consolidates Pembury Hospital and Kent and Sussex hospital into one new model facility on the pembury site

cliet sleveted as preferred contractor

team had to deliver planning permission in 5 months

Hospital 1930s and workhouse 1800

currently poor quality
Grade 2 listed chapel
surrounded by AONB
within greenbelt
geological SSSI close to site
RSBP site adjacent
demolish existing buildings
build new 521 bedroom district general hospital
increase car parking-1200 spaces
new junction into site
helipad for air ambulance


Pembury Screening

previous planning approved 2002
EIA undetaken by another consultant
ramboll argue no EIA required- just update to assessments
would be cheaper and quicker for client
Tunbridge wells borough council "played it by the book"
New EIA needed


Pembury Scoping

Archaeology and cultural heritage
ecology and nature conservation
air quality
noise and vibration
hydrology and drainage
contaminated land and geology
waste and resource management


Pembury Arachaeology

grade 2 victorian chapel

numerous other building of historic interest incl workhouse, well and water tower, entrance lodge, formal lawn and driveway, sand pit, quarry and sewage treatment works


Pembury ecology

Previous EI not found evidence of much ecological interest

2007 surveys found:
maternity roost of brown long eared bats
single roost of bats further 11 buildings
repitiles, incl clow worms and common lizards
3 species of red listed breeding birds nesting on buildings and other breed birds in woodland
breeding populations of dormice
Acid and hay meadow grassland
semi natural ancient woodland
Japanese knotweed and himalayan Balsam


Pembury Transportation

Transport assessment and framework travel plan

traffic modelling

consideration of public transport, cycling, walking

negotiations with highways agency - difficult

negotiations with kent county council- easier


Pembury hospital - ES

ES bringing it all together
thorny issue of significance
-matrices or not?
discipline guidance versus standard approach


Pembury - Environmental management

discharging planning conditions

construction environemtal management plan (CEMP_ produces febuary 2008

CEMP details required mitigation and management measures for each issue

supported by additional documents - ecological management plan

ie BATS- removal of tiles/ roof spaces
dedication heated bat house
bat boxes throughout woodland surrounding site


Port of Poole Masterplan

Trust port establishment in 1895, managed by poole Harbour commissioners

cross channel freight, passenger, ro-ro ferries and build cargo vessels

operates two marine and hosts visiting cruise ships sporadically

declining free trace, global movement, towards larger and deeper cargo vessels, increase in cruise industry


Poole development

land reclamation

construction of new quays

widening of quays

dredging to create deeper quays

increase height of quay walls for flood defence

HRO and MMO licence required


Poole Scoping

Contamination and water quality
flood risk
historic environment
noise and vibration
air quality
flood risk
navigation risk
socio economic
-sub tidal


Poole- Hydrodynamics, sand transport

baseline conditions
-deposition in turning basin and middle channel
- erosion in little channel and towards harbour entrance

proposed conditions
- incrase in deposition in turning basin from 3000m3 to 3400m3 per year

change in deposition in middle channel from 23800m3 to 23200m3


poole signifiance and mitigation

signifiance is often subjective
- landscape and visual assessment determines that there was no significance impact on AONB but this was contested by other members of the team

discussion with client is key
suggest mitigation measures in the ES in order to reduce significance if the client isn't willing to employment them! essential to get their buy-in


Mitigation Hierachy

-avoid impact by not taking certain action- alternative sites or technology to eliminate impacts, avoiding envt sensitive areas, prevenative measures

-reduce/minimse the impact over time by maintenance or preservation- actions during design, construction, operation to minimise or eliminate impacts , scaling down or relocating the proposal

-restore/remdy the impact by repair or restoration

-compensate by replacing resources- used as a last resort to offset impacts, rehabilitation of affect, habitat enhancement and restocking fish.
restoration of affected site or envy to its previous state or better typical of mine sites, forestry roads and seismic lines
replacement of same resource valures at another location i.e. wetland engineering to provide an equivalent area to that lost to drainage or infill

-(enhance: positive change)


Mitigation of larger scale housing projects

avoid and minimise

Displacement of existent land use- trade offs between land values for housing and those of other uses i.e. farmland. ensure design suited to local conditions and no unnecessarily wasteful of land.

destruction of envt critical areas- ensure regionally critical envy sites is forested areas, major bodies and wetlands are identified and not threatened by project location.

(world bank, 1991)


Mitigation of a dam project

Avoid/ minimise

Eco River Dam, Oaxaca Mexico

identified series of measures to avoid/ minimise impacts:

replacing homes and lands of the people displaced

operating and rehabilitating borrow pits in appropriate manner

establishing fish breeding programs

removing trees for wood form the site prior to flooding

planting trees as barriers

promoting agriculture practice that will reduce the need for water.


EIA - Fracking

Bowland Shale in Lancashire 2009-2010. Cuadrilla- series of planning permissions. change of use from agricultural to allow exploratory drilling. all 0.77-0.99!!!
installations such as shale gas drilling



Jan 2012- govt announce intention to develop Y shaped high speed rail networks.

Royal Assent 2016, commencing construction 2017.

Jan 2013-announce preferred route.
July 2014 proposed rout was consulted on for 7 months.

reports 2014- recommended accelerating Phase 2 of the route to deliver HS2 sooner and benefits to the north soon.r

EIA will accompany the deposit of a hybrid bill in parliament and will be considered alongside the draft of hybrid Bill in parliament.

EIA required by Europeans Union directive on assessment of effects of certain public and private projects

EIA= strategic and route wide, route corridor and local alternatives.

agriculture, forestry, soils

air quality



cultural heritage


electromagnetic interference


land quality

landscape and visual assessment

major accidents and natural disasters


sound noise and vibration

traffic and transport

waste and material resources

water resources and flood risk assessment