Flashcards in Ecology Deck (36):
Millenium ecosystem assessment
60% worlds ecosystem are being degraded or used unsustainably
Decline of indicator species
bird population indices
seabirds declined (1970 to 2012)
help conserve species and threatened habitats from development
doesn't address large-scale land use changes, pre-existing development and introduced species, climate change
Fauna and flora clearly written in to EIA law
scoping- incl consultation widest poss input for determin scope
identification of expected zone of influence
determination and evaluation of etiological resources
description of expected biophysical changes which would affect valuable ecological resources
assessment of changes if able to cause significant ecological impacts
developmetn o ecological improvement and mitigation measures for avoiding any negative impacts
assesment of ecological impacts and their significance
summing up of consequesnces for decision making
monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures and ecological outcomes
Limits of impact: quarry proposal zone of influence
ecological feature or resource within the area to be worked will be affected by changes in land cover by topsoil stripping and excavation
noise, dust and changes in human activity will also affect species in adjacent habitats
major long term deterring operations could have consequences for water dependent habitats distant from the quarry.
hydrological/hyrdrogeological modelling may be necessary
new infrastructure impacts beyond the boundaries of the site in addition to those affects by deterring.
zone of influence should include all such features that are of sufficiency value to be included in the assessment.
information on protected area area and habitats:
natural england (equivalent)
Local wildlife trust
specific groups (birders wildflowers, bat groups, herpetologists, butterfly groups)
OS amps, geological maps, land use maps, habitat maps, remote sensing
Protected areas- Nationsl
updates 2000 countryside and rights of way act 2000- natural envy and rural communities
conservation in the UK run by nature conservancy Councils- Natural England
scienitific basses for selection
"national series to maintain the diversity of plants and animals in the UK"
old system (pre 2000) not very effective 45% of SSSIs in an 'unfavourable condition'
decline more often due to neglect rather than intentional damage
SSSIs habe managemnt statement can extend to land outside the site
financial rewards for positive management
management notice can be issues in the case of failure- followed by persecution and or compulsory purchase
offence of reckless damage by 3rd parties
development not permitted w/o satisfactory mitigation agreed by natural england
ie Barnet Reservoir Welsh Harp- waterfowl and other birds incl britains largest breeding pop of great crested grebe. >40 rare species of invertebrates
National nature reserve
scientific/research basis: national importance
usually owned or managed by NCC
400+ designated sites (900 proposed by ratcliffe 1977) (
Local nature reserves
similar basis for selection to SSSIs Local importance only
usually on land owned by local authority
designated by local authorities
non statutory nature reserves
wide range of individual local authority designations
SINCs (Sites of importance for nature conservation)
Barnet 1992- wildlife habitat surveys, 1997 Nature conservation of Barnet published= 67 SINCs. 2006= unitary development plan.
ie Greenways Southampton
PROTECTED AREAS- INTERNATIONAL
Special protection areas (SPAs)
Special area of Conservation (SACs)- Natura 2000 sites- designed to safeguard the wildlife most at risk.
if impacts likely will need appropriate assessment
development possible if IROPI (imperative reasons of overriding public interest)
(Convention on Wetlands of international importance 1971)
covers wetlands under v broad definition
supports monitoring and conservation
general and probable unenforceable protection in the UK via national and EU laws
140 UK sites
designated to safeguard habitats of migratory and threatened species
240 sites UK
habitat directive 1992
special area of conservation 600 sites (UK):
presence of priority habitat type or species
presence of a habitat or species which is rare in the UK
presence of diversity of listed habitats and or species
presence of a large proportion of European resource
NNR (national nature reserves) and SSSI= low water only
Marine nature reserves: only 3 in UK and 1 voluntary (kimmerdge)
-broadly equivalent to NNR
heritage coats: no legal protection by considered by planing authorise in matters like development
Europeana Marine Sites
protected under European law and incl SACS and SPAs
part of europe wide network (Nature 2000)
can extend from terrestrial to marine
UK biodiversity framework
initiative from Earth summit (1992)
creates action plans for species and habitats
wider remit than traditional UK protection
funding with corporate partners
1150 pritority species
65 prority habit types (heathlands mires, brackish lagoons)
indivudal species protection
traditional protection via wildlife and countryside Act 1981. Since strengthen by CRoW, recently consolidated in conservation of habitats and species regulations 2010
all reptile and amphibians
names plants and animals
licences needed for disturbance, handling, certain types of surveys
white clawed crayfish
prtection derived from:
wildlife and countryside Act 1981
conservation of habitats and species regulations 2010.
natural england- dispense European protected species licences
implication for developers
developments halted and planning often refused on ecological issues
bat species most common
biodiversity action plan / national planning framework
european protected species licences needed for survey and management
costs and deals often results
hunt by echolocation
hibernate during winter
roost during day hunt at night
roost types incl day transient hibernation feeding perch maternity and mating
emerge from hibernation in May
give birth to single pup (June- disperse August)
mate in october. feels store sperm during hibernation
go into torpor depending on weather conditions
make use of man made features
some spiced listed on biodiversity action plans as PRIORITY SPECIES
under current UK/EU leglislation illegal to disturb harm/ kill bats damage their breeding or resting places
i.e. could be illegal to re roof house
extend your property
demolish/ convert a building
initial survey carried out at any time of the year
external- access points, droppings, suitable habitats, flight lines
internal- feeding remains, droppings, scratch marks urine staining
phasse II - during active bat season
-emergancy reentry, sonogram analysis, visual observation
species type of roost (maternity/ day. hibernation/ mating)
how pip is the population- roost?
desrecutve search- supervised by licensed bat worker, removes any bats that do not leave of their own accord, sensitively carried out
avoidance= leave bats
compensation= replacement with like for like or similar
enhancemnt= additional feats to what is already present to promote biodiversity and protected species.
bat boxes/restoration of roost
20K bat house
hedgerows/ linear feautres
increased access to loose areas enlargement of roost areas
baseline study should aim to establish the nature of a site.
NCC phase 1 habitat survey is widely accepted as the standard approach for assessing the ecological condition of a site during EIA
desk study what it should include
Is the site designated? Why?
Should it be designated?
(e.g. any protected species)
Any protected areas nearby?
Has it been surveyed already?
When? What methods were used?
Are the data available of sufficient quality?
NCC phase 1 habitat survey
desk study may provide sufficient information to make a detailed field study unnecessary
site visit to check info gathered is advisable
unlikely that detailed ecological information will be available and initial survey using NCC phase 1 method
Aims of JNCC phase 1 survey
should be adequate for prelim ecological survey
-developmetn cause sig eco impacts?
-important habitats, taxonomy groups species been identified?
-contentious issues appeared?
-other survey work needed?
-impacts be evaluated on magnitude and scale?
-importance of habitats and species?
provide a record of vegetation and wildlife habitat using a reproducible method based on standard classification of vegetation types and referring to topographic and substrate features
method was developed with conservation aims by is equally applicable to coastline studies in enact assessment prior to development
methods field study
GIS generated base map
ground truthing i.e. direct measurement if needed
vegetation types are mapped (usually on OS) based on 90 specified habitats types
target notes- made in field give brief account of particular areas of nature conservation interest- need for more detailed survey work (phase 2&3) in specific areas
habitat areas can be estimated using GIS
mapping gives highly visual presentation of data gathered: useful to other members of EIA team
limitations of NCC phase 1
phase 2 and 3
phase 2- ususally restricted to single habitat types or major groups
more detailed species level identification
more exact habiat classification
national vegetation calssification
diversity evaluations: assesses range of variation within a particular habitat classification
diversity evaluations: assesses range of variation within a particular habitat
highly detailed specialists often needed
extent and distribution of plan and animal species on sites
produces detailed infromation on frequency or abundance of communities and species
report wchi assesses potenital effects upon a designated European site
UK government planning policy also extends the same levels of protection to ramsar sites
AIMS: assess implications a proposal would have on sites convservation objectives
ascertain whether competent authority usually guided by Natural England
competent authority (LPA) guided by natural england
devloper musy supple infromation
considered in parallel to ES at the time of decision
inform decisions involve IROPI
INCLUDE: desription of development, potential impacts on SPA with respect to conservation , mitigation