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Flashcards in Coastal Project EIA Deck (23):

EIA complex

Eia in coastal context is complicated by the regulatory and natural environment


Marine consents and licensing syst

marine management organisation

national infrastructure projects: planning inspectorate

flood defence consent - A

planning permiaion (above mean low water)- LPA

harbour works consent - Habour Authority

Landowner consent- Crown Estate



international european and english legislation giving protection to the marine environment


Severn Barrage

Bristol/ swansea/ cardiff

estuary with international shipping

internationally important for wildlife: SPA, SAC, Ramsar

60-85 000 wintering bird per year feeding on mudflats

habitat loss predicted due to sea level rise and coastal squeeze

also important for fisheries (salmon, eels) recreation, landscape and cultural heritage

14m tidal range

barrages babe neem considered since 1974

potentially a predictable source of renewable energy


UK energy policy

path of cutting CO2 by 60% by 2050

real progress by 2020 (2011 target increase to 80% reduction by 2050)

maintain the reliability of energy supplies

to promote the reliability of energy supplies

to promote competitive markets in the UK and beyond

to ensure that every home is adequately and affordable heated

15% energy = renewables by 2020


Four shortlisted options

8GW barrage: cardiff weston (£34.3 bn)

shoots barrage- 1 GW (further upstream) (£17.7bn)

beachley barrage above river Wye 625 MW (£7bn)

bridgwater bay lagoon- 1.36 GW (£12n)

fleming laggon 1.36GW (£6.6bn)



214 X 40MW turbines

gneration 8.6GW during flow and 2 GW on average

three of the latest nuclear power stations or 7-8 large coal fired power stations

sufficient to provide 5-6% of the current electricity usage of england and wales

cut carbon emissions by 16 million tonnes per year vs coal

shipping locks for navigation to major ports

major flood defence benefit, preventing storm surges on the Severn

construction possible in just 6 - 8 years


economic benefits (8GW)

total of 200000 man years of employment would be greeted with a total of 35 000 jobs during the peak period of construction

further 40 000 permanent jobs in somerset and S. Wales thanks to benefits of proximity of th new severn crossing point


Negative impacts (8GW)

destruction of bird habitats; major compensatory habitat creation would be needed under EU law (some habitat loss likely anyway die to sea level rise)

disruption to migratory fish

changes in seidment - increased siltation and erosion likely and hard to predict

increased flood risk on seaward side


other barrage options

shoots barrage- scheme further upstream which would generate around 1GW = large fossil fuel plant

beacley barrage- even smaller scheme just above Wye River

would generate around 625MW


Tidal lagoons

bridgewater bay lagoon--impind a section of the estuary on the coast between east of hinkley point and weston super mare (1.36GW)

Fleming/ welsh grounds lagoon- similar scheme which would generate the same amount of power from a section of the welsh shore between newport and severn road crossing


Head os sustainable development RSPB

harness huge tifal power of severn cannot trash natural envt

huge estuary marsh and mudflats 69000 birds each winter and block migratory routes of countless fish


Friends of the Eearth Cymru

plans too pig and threat to internationally important wildlife sites

minister must focus on developing the estuary potential for tidal lagoons instead


costs add up?

range of plausible scenarios, large barrage on severn is expensive compared to alternative renewables

appears to be sufficient capacity to use other technologies to meet government targets for renewable generation


appropriate assessment

ID extensive residual effects after mitigation

reduction of bird populations

reduced extent of ey habitat featues

decline or population collapse of protected migratory fish species (extinction of twaite shad, impact sea lamprey and atlantic trout and European eel)



consutation continues until 2010 multiple schemes were possible

decision to cancel the project announced by energy secretary

no strategic case

finacnes impractival - other options more cost effective

impact excessive

option for future consideration left open


Swansea Bay Barrage

Nov 2014 proposal submitted to planning inspectorate

now consented but finding not yet confirmed


Tidal lagoon power proposal

£850 m 6 mile long U shaped seawall by the Swansea docks

enough electric to power 120000 homes for 120 years

one of the proposed today lagoon inc liverpool bay and clown bay N wales


Tidal lagoon benefits

nearly 2000 construction jobs in the 2 years to build

opportunities for local industries- making turbine housing, sluice gates, flood doors, precast concrete, electrics

regeneration of regional economy

up to 100 000 tourist visitors a year

international sport centre

arts and culture

local recreation


how does a tidal lagoon work?

project will harness the total range with impounding seal wall capable of holding four square miles of water

would let it run out through 16 turbines at both high and low tides generating electricty

low tide water would flow from the lagoon into the sea and at high tide, water would flow from the sea into the lagoon


climate change and flood defence

lagoon will reduce swansea vulnerability to tidal flooding- reduce costs on existing coastal defence infrastructure

has been tested with physical models to with stand a 1 in 500 year storm event



the lagoons could potential produce power for about £100 per mega watt hour

£131 Mwh for deep sea offshore wind

£90 MWg for onshore wind solar and glass fired plants

£100 price can only be achieved on completion of the third giant project

1st- Swansea would cost £168 per MWh

2nd £130

3rd £92


Planning permission

granted 2015

feb 2016- on hold to review of government funding