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Flashcards in EIA and Sustainbale Development Deck (16):

Sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs- bundtland 1987

Social, economic, envt


Where does EIA fit in?

Rio declaration on Environment and development - in order to achieve sustainable development environmental protection shall continue an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it

firmly establish link between envt and development

SD- existing harmful developments must be managed by new developed must be deigned to have smallest practicable negative impacts or even positive ones.


Key elements

precautionary principle

ecological limits

intra and inter generational equity

partnerships and participation

accountability and participation

accountability and transparency

strategic issues and cumulative effects


Off shore hydrocarbon - project Mozambique

one of world poorest countries

possibly rich if offshore oil and gas



extremely low socioeconomic base

rich biological diversity

newly formed policies, legislation and institution with regard to exploitation of mineral resources and environmental protection

wealth of mineral resources - some of which are already being exploited


hydrocarbons? what else supported by ecosystem?

challenges of exploration for HC resources in one of the most unspoiled marine envy in the world

supports extensive subsistence livlihoods

alternative economic activities such as tourism which forms a cornerstone of present day and economy


Ecology, tourism and fisheries

ecologically important coastal and marine habitats; beached, mud flats, extensive mangrove forests, coral reefs and open waters

breeding, nesting and foraging marine turtles and mammals ie whales and dolphins

DUGONS (largest remaining viable population in the Westen Indian Ocean Region)

bazaruto national park
toursim- developed into important component of community

bazarunto has been identified as a priority fr tourism investment in Mozambique

coastal and mine envy supports livelihood of impoverished inhabitants

marine resources as a food source

semi industrial and industrial fisheries



Seismic surveys followed by exploration drilling and well testing activities = 10 000 km2

SIA generally conducted in respects of single activities - seismic survey or drilling activities

similarly they are conducted in respect of well defined geographical areas

EIA combined the assessment of 2 diff exploration activities

for two different environments (shallow and deep waters)


Precautionary principle

scoping phase- information gaps :
threatened resident dugong population
sensitive artisanal fishery
extent and importance of local tourism sector

EIA recommended ecpolration in shallow be abandoned until additional infmoration could be sourced

recommendation was accepted and before EIAreport was completed proponent commtted to postpone shallow water seismic exploration activities until additional information had been obtained

extensive effects monitoring during implementation phase

year long study on the local dugong population

fish catch monitoring and dugong research= shallow water area formed critical habitat

studies recommend that no expoloration activities be undertaken in shallow water area


ecological limits

seismic noise limits- interfer with marine mammal communication, startle or result in physical damage to fauna

recommendation: spatial mitigation and temporal mitigation
followed by monitoring activities during implementation phase


Intra and inter generational equity

compensation was paid to all stakeholders that lodged claims directly added by deep water 3D seismic survey activity

misunderstanding: compensation procedures could have been more adequately explained

ensure local communities benefit from revenue generated

EIA recommended local benefits are derived from appropriate social investment projects- health, education and sanitation etc

oppuntities for future generations


Partnerships and participation

EIA project partnership between mozambican and S.A companies

moz institutions engaged and supported to assess with effects monitoring during implementation phase incl data gathering on artisanal fish and tourism activities

local experts from eduardo monoplane university were contracted- taught SA experts to undertake Dugong research

Stakeholder engagement
- BID (non technical background information document) distributed to all stakeholders in scoping phase
-introduced purpose and need for project
-described EIA process
-described the proposed project and potential associated Envt and social impacts


Accoutnability and Transparency

adress areas of uncertainty without undue pressure on timeframes. access to information and review of information

independent peer reviewer


Strategic issues and cumulative

EIA document addressed impacts ass with old and gas exploration

stakeholders raised concerns related to potential long term cumulative impacts ass with O&G production- economically viable gas reserved be found

core concern focused on percieved incompatiibilty between trouser sector, conservation and artisanal fishing

O&G sector was perceived as direct heat to marine conservation
-threat to tourism

importance of O&G scooter to development of national economic was recognised, limited local benefits were likely to be realized

tourism already established

artisanal fishery supported livelihood of the most vulnerable members of the community

EIA not approatiate tool to address conflicting issues between future O&G development and perceived threats to tourism, artisanal fishing and conservation

Strategic EA (SEA) undertaken to address these issues

SEA would assess costs and benefits of protecting marine envy and therefore supporting tourism development and artisanal fishing while promoting O&G sect

reconmendation: SEA prior to approval of O&G production activities supposed by proponent, govt and affected stakeholders


How does this add up?

Envt aviods most sensitive areas and threatened species

socially inclusive process involving local stakeholders with external scrutiny

economically- avoids impacts where livelihoods are supported, compensates for losses, some benefits reattributed




EIA has been promoted as a tool that will deliver sustainable development for many years
It can..up to a point…but practice and delivery varies
Practice is improving