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Flashcards in BASELINE DATA Deck (35):
1

Structure of Envt Statement

(Part II Schedule 4)

1. description of development; information on the site, design and size of the development.

2. description of measures to avoid, reduce and possibly remedy significant adverse effects.

3. data required to identify and assess the main effects which the development is likely to have on the environment.

Proposal- detail
Rochdale Envelope

4. outline of main alternatives studied by the applicant or appellant and an indication of the main reasons for the choice made, taking into account the environmental effects.

5. A non-technical summary of the information provided under paragraphs 1 to 4 of this Part.

2

Rochdale Envelope

Detail must be such to enable proper assessment of likely impacts and necessary mitigation
Consider range of possibilities.

3

Off shore wind farm Consideration

max/min no turbines
max/min nacelle (hub) height
max/min blade tip height
min clearance above mean sea level
min seperation between turbines
outline of main alternatives and mitigation measures

4

Consultation process

Who did you talk to?
iterative process
Planning Act 2008- duty of developer to engage meaningful with:
Affected communities
local authority
other statutory consulates
pre application stage

5

What must the developer do?

produce and publicise a statement of community consultation. must consult with/ have regard to the views of any relevant local authority.

6

List of impacts to consider (policy context)

Population
Flora
fauna
soil
water
air
climatic factors
material assets (Incl architectural)
archaeological heritage
landscape
interrelationship
employment
traffic and transport
ecology and nature conservation
marine environments
navigation
landscape and visual impacts
lighting noise and vibration
air quality
agricultural
cultural heritage
recreation and tourism
freshwater and drainage
ground quality
services

7

Typical contents of each section

intro to area
importance and designation
scoping findings
methodologies
baseline data
impact prediction
suggested mitigation
glossary and abbreviation
non tech summary

8

Digital revolution

1980s- EIS poorly put together mixed documentation

1990s- Early 2000s- professionally produced often single volume. Available free or at nominal charge

2006 onwards: all documents online via LPA planning websites; paper copies only by request at large cost (£200)

new directive (2014): requires all documentation to be available online across the EU

9

baseline data

significant parrots (human beings, flora, fauna, soil, water, air, climate, material assets, cultural heritage)
collect existing (desk/consult)
gathering exsisting by survey

10

Aims of collecting baseline data

asses value of baseline envy (regional/ national impact)
provide data to predict changes which development might cause
provide baseline for future monitoring

11

Model for gathering Data

draw up limits to area:
of development
potential impacts

Desk study
fieldwork: phase 1 and phase 2&3

12

Limits of Envt impacts

the site
immediate locality
wider effects (national, international, global)
(construction operation and decommissioning phases should be assessed.)

13

HEATHROW EXTENTION. impacts

Site:
land intake-conservation, hydrology

locally- road improvements employment, noise (local and on flight paths)

nationally- status of impacted conservation area, economy: local and national effects

internationally: greenhouse emissions, trade benefits, tourism impacts

14

HEATHROW COSTS

planning process- £63 mill over 14 years
46 month public enquiry
construction costs=£4.2 billion

15

Need for HEATHROW extension

if not built cost UK £600 mil year in exports
larger aeroplanes need bigger infra
accommodating modern planes can reduce air and noise poll whilst increasing passenger numbers

16

Impacts of Construction phase HEATHROW

6 years (2002-2006) = phase 1
further phase completed in 2011

workforce (60 contractors)
noise
traffic
dust
security
land take
hydrology
wider infrastructure (road, rail links, car parks)
radar dust
use of resources
cultural heritage

17

Impacts of operation phase HEATHROW

traffic
noise (traffic and planes)
air pollution
run off
economy: jobs services
global impacts (climate change, trade)

18

CHANNEL TUNNLE

site itself: major land intake
Locally: difficulty finding an acceptable route (though Kent and London)
National: short term- increase in road traffic. long term- potential short to freight on rail
international: improved trade within EU. National security/ health risk.

19

IKEA SOUTHAMPTON

land take of limited importance (brownfield site in urban area)
4 storey building, 600 seat restaurant, 891 space car park opposite leisure world

20

IKEA SOUTHAMPTON

immediate area:
construction: noise dust, odours, traffic, infrastructure, landscape and heritage
operation: traffic (15% increase predicted- junction improvements proposed as mitigation) Council requiring bus links to station, city centre, ferries.
Landscape heritage
potentially economic impacts on other local businesses (John Lewis)

beyond immediate:
traffic, in operation as far as regional motorways and interactions with docks operations and events

economic:
£55 m pa turnover, 500 jobs locally) business across the region may be impacted

21

Desk Study: statutory consultees

obliged to provide information already in their possesion during an EIA.

22

Examples of statutory consultees

Natural England
Environment Agency
Local authorities
highway agency
marine management organisation
RSPB
national trust
local chamber of commerce
business groups
cyclists
windsurfer

23

How much detail?

decision based on scoping and initial findings
general (phase 1) require i.e. economy habitat mapping
anything of interest? phase 2- species lists or
phase 3 counts of individual organisms
clean reference sites for term monitoring may be needed.

24

Estabilishing significance

Glasson- 150 difference methods predicting environmental impacts

definition (dibden ES): one where the predicted net impact of the activity will (regardless of its size) exceed the normal variation in baseline conditions, as they are predicted to be if the proposals do not go ahead.

measuring a variation from the usual and normal environment- does not by itself indicate the importance of an impact.

25

diff approaches to establishing significance

-matrices, multi criteria analysis
-cost-benefit analysis, economics
- standardised generic levels of significance specific to each impact
measurement against benchmarks, guidelines or standards
- adhoc methods ie characterising significance with qualitative text or in tables, including expert views.

26

Estabilishing significance- difficult and subjective

Glasson- 150 difference methods predicting environmental impacts

definition (dibden ES): one where the predicted net impact of the activity will (regardless of its size) exceed the normal variation in baseline conditions, as they are predicted to be if the proposals do not go ahead.

measuring a variation from the usual and normal environment- does not by itself indicate the importance of an impact.

A decision as to whether a proposal is likely to have a significant effect on the environment is made using professional judgement, which is gained through knowledge and experience in the application of EIA.

27

diff approaches to establishing significance

-matrices, multi criteria analysis
-cost-benefit analysis, economics
- standardised generic levels of significance specific to each impact
measurement against benchmarks, guidelines or standards
- adhoc methods ie characterising significance with qualitative text or in tables, including expert views.

28

DIBDEN BAY ES -establishing significance

Sensitivity of the receiving environment
Magnitude of impact
frequency of impact
timescale of impact

29

Importance of impacts

Ecoology
air quality (Air qual regs 2000= NOx SO2 and particles. Dust, odours do not have formal regs or standards

30

Significane as function of impact magnitude and importance/ sensitivity.

As importance and sensitivity increases magnitude increases. low medium medium high.

31

Determining is proposal is likely to have sig effect on envt: EPA regard-

-Values, sensitivity, Quality of envt
- extent (intensity, duration, magnitude, and geographic footprint)
-consequence of likely impacts (change)
-resilience of envy to cope with change.
-cumulative impact with other projects
-level of confidence of the impacts predicted
-objects of the Act, policies, guidelines, procedures and standards agains which a proposal can be assessed.
-public concern.
-presence of strategic planning policy framework
-extent to which other statutory decision- making processes meet the EPA's objectives and principles for EIA.

32

Significance spectrum

Zero--> mitigation--> catastrophic impact.

33

How well is this done? (determining sig)

past change, current practice, future improvemnets.

(Briggs and Hudson 2012)

30 ES, 3 time periods. Standard methodology.

meth adapted from Lee and Colley grading- A-f, A-C satisfactory. D-F unsat.

Interview proof from consultant, planning govt agencies and NGOs.

Surveys the membership of the institute of Ecology and Envt Management (3000 members)

34

Summary

Baseline data is a vital component of an EIA
Establishing significance remains problematic, even with good quality data
Significance can often be established by comparison with benchmarks or standards
Professional or expert judgment often involved
Long term or complex impacts will always be hard to predict
Practice has improved as the EIA as a discipline has matured

35

What goes into an environmental statement- content and structure

Approaches to assessing significance

Progress to better practice but lingering problems

Answer