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Flashcards in Landscape and visual Deck (22):

Aesthitic perception



Landscape is important

essential part of our natural resource base

reservoir or archaeological and histroical evidence
envt for plants and animals (including humans)

a resource that evokes sensual, cultural and spiritual responses and contributes to our urban and rural quality of life

a valuable recreation resources



landcape impacts: changes in the fabric character and quality of the landscape as a result of a development

direct impact: upon specific landscape elements

subtler effects: upon the overall patterns of elements that give rise to



Visual impacts: relate soley to chages in availabel views the landscape and the effect of those changes on people

the direct impacts of the development upon views of the landscape through intrusion or obstruction

overal impact of visual amenity, be it degradation or enhancement

the reaction of viewers who may be affected


Landscape impacts

landscape elements
local distinctiveness
regional context
special interests


Factors that contribute to the landscape

physical, human, aesthetic, associations


Visual impacts

views, viewers visual amenity



individual elements that make up the landscape, incl prominent or eye catching features i.e. hills, valleys, woods, trees, hedges, songs, buildings and roads. can be easily described



elements or combinations of elements that make a particular contribution to the character of the area incl tranquility and wildness



distinct and recognisable pattern of elements that occurs consistently in a particular type of landscape and how this i perceived by people


Lake district elements, characteristics, character

elements: small field, stone walls, trees in lowlands, bare rock and open uplands, lakes, farms and small villages

characteristics: remoteness, open space, low population

Character: combination of elements as oboe; cultural associations.


Landscape designations

area of outstanding natural beauty (40 in england and wales. 18% of land area designated by natural england)

national parks (14 in the UK)

world heritage sites (designated by UNESCO- 27 in the UK)

others, some cross referencing with additional elements of cultural heritage

policy context


Assessing landscape and visual impact

landscape elements and features directly affected by development

landscape features include- topography, geology, drainage, vegetation and cultural features.

visual receptors incl types and numbers of viewers affected duration and seasonal screening


factors to include in assessment of landscape and visual impact

scale and character- landscape with medieval strip field and enclosures are of more important character than those with large modern fields

condition and importance- land management, grazing, erosion, associated with designation.

sensitivity (landforms and settlements)

change/enhancment potential- new elements? reduce eliminate others? improve landscape quality?

visual analysis- following the field survey present extent to which development will be visible from surrounding areas and viewpoints (zone of visual intrusion)


assessing impacts

ID all potential landscape visual impacts

predict & estimate magnitude

receptors may include:
viewers of landscape i.e. residents

specific landscapes elements i.e. coastline hilltops

other cultural interests or valued landscapes i.e. historic gardens and landscapes

areas of distinctive landscape character


impact description

plans/maps of zone of visual intrusion

plans maps of impact from different areas

photos from key viewpoints

digital photomontages and overlays

virtual environments

sketches of development in situ

sketches in alternative locations


significance: judgement based on

sensitivity and importance of the affected landscape and visual resources

impact magnitude

determination of whether impacts are adverse or beneficial

professional judgement

the views expressed through consultation





measurebale facts

professional judgment

public preference

character assessment

quality assessment

scenic beauty



ID area of visual intrusion and view points


balloon tests to verify heights

assess impacts and significance against established guidelines



landscaping and nature conservation

mound between terminal and creek

tree planting along perimeter road and broad belts of woodland

creek to recreate a shoreline and buffer the impact

raising Hythe bund 3-9m to 12 m with acoustic fence and woodland planting on upper slopes


conclusion (dibden landscape)

slight effect on the new first but visible over a large area

proposal reinstate the transition from forces to the shore

lighting an light pollution- 24 hour operation, designs to minimise light pollution

landscape and nature conservation= will be dark in the night time

add to exsisting light pollution or sky glow.

fre indidivudal locations close to the operational area there will be s substation ally adverts impact (residential houses, gold course)



Digital technology has revolutionised this discipline
The subject retains a high degree of subjectivity
Landscape evaluation interacts with other elements of cultural heritage, and other environmental elements

What are ‘landscape’ and ‘visual’ assessment?
What sort of baseline data (including designations)?
How are they assessed?
As usual…case studies?