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English Language A Level > Categorising Texts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Categorising Texts Deck (73)
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0
Q

What are explicit meanings in semantics?

A

Literal meaning.

1
Q

What is semantics?

A

The study of meaning.

2
Q

What are implicit meanings in semantics?

A

Implied meaning.

3
Q

What is register?

A

Level of formality.

4
Q

What are pragmatics?

A

How social classes, personality, context and relationships affect language choices.

5
Q

What is graphology?

A

The effect that appearance has on the text.

6
Q

What is discourse?

A

Extended piece of spoken or witten communication, which consists of 2 or more sentences/utterances

7
Q

What is a discourse structure?

A

The way that a text is put together

E.g. Whether it has a beginning, middle and end.

8
Q

In spoken discourse, there is more than one what?

A

Utterance

9
Q

In written discourse, there is more than one what?

A

Sentence

10
Q

What does written discourse look at?

A

The structure of the text

I.e. Beginning, contents, end

11
Q

What does spoken discourse look at?

A

The spontaneous/unpredictable aspect of spoken language

12
Q

What is cohesion?

A

How the text is put together

13
Q

What are examples of grammatical cohesion?

A

Adverbs such as ‘furthermore’ and ‘similarly’ at the beginning of a sentence or paragraph.

14
Q

What is lexical cohesion?

A

When the words in the discourse relate to eachother throughout.

E.g- there was no SIGN of the CAR - her LIFT was obviously stuck in TRAFFIC.

15
Q

What are inflections?

A

The ‘extra bits’ added to words.

cup > cup(s)- changes singular to plural.

remember > remember(ed)- changes present tense verb into past.

16
Q

What are pre-modifiers?

A

Words that come before nouns.

17
Q

What are post-modifiers?

A

Words that come after nouns

18
Q

What are comparative adjectives and what inflection do they include?

A

Adjectives that make a comparison to something.

Usually include the ‘-er’ inflection.

19
Q

What are superlative adjectives and what inflection do they include?

A

Adjectives that exaggerate the word’s prominence.

Usually include the ‘-est’ inflection

20
Q

What are the three main sections when categorising texts?

A

Purpose, Audience, Genre.

21
Q

What is colloquialism?

A

Slang.

21
Q

What is culturally referential language?

A

Discourse that is understood by a certain group of people.

22
Q

What are quantifiers?

A

Determiners that show quantity.

E.g. Few, Many, Enough.

23
Q

What are conjunctions?

A

Linking words.

24
Q

What are declarative sentences?

A

Sentences that give information.

25
Q

What are imperative sentences?

A

Sentences that give orders, advice and directions.

They start with a main verb such as ‘answer’ or ‘go’.

26
Q

What are interrogative sentences?

A

Sentences that ask questions.

Can also be added to the end of a statement, as tag questions. E.g. It’s cold, ISN’T IT?

27
Q

What are exclamative sentences?

A

Sentences that have an expressive function.

They convey the force of a statement, and end with an exclamation mark!

28
Q

What characteristics does informal lexis usually have?

A

Colloquialism and non-Standard English.

E.g. May describe someone as ‘tapped’ or a ‘loony’.

Monosyllabic words.

E.g. Nice and Grub.

Abbreviations.

E.g. Can’t, You’ll and Would’ve.

Informal lexis has OLD ENGLISH roots.

29
Q

What characteristics does formal lexis usually have?

A

Made up of Standard English words, with little/no slang.

E.g. May describe someone as ‘mentally ill’.

Polysyllabic words.

E.g. Enjoyable and Comestibles.

Little/no abbreviations.

E.g. Cannot, you will, and would have.

Formal lexis has LATIN roots.

30
Q

Written language is more ______ than spoken language?

A

Formal.

31
Q

Why is written language usually more formal than spoken language?

A

Speech tends to be spontaneous, whereas writing is planned.

32
Q

What is a denotation?

A

A straightforward meaning or definition of a word.

E.g. ‘Red is a primary colour that lies next to orange in the visible spectrum’.

33
Q

What is a connotation?

A

The associations a word has, or the emotions raised by a word.

E.g. ‘Red can be associated with love and passion, or with blood and danger’.

34
Q

What are semantic fields/lexical fields?

A

Groups of words that are connected in meaning.

E.g. Semantic field of war: artillery, bomb, naval, air force, gas…

35
Q

What are the words (lexical items) that make up semantic fields known as?

A

Field-specific lexis.

36
Q

What is a HypERnym?

What is a HypOnym?

A

HypERnyms are general words.

HypOnyms are specific words with a meaning linked to the HypERnym.

E.g. HypERnym=Game.

E.g. HypOnym=Rounders, Cards, Chess, I Spy.

37
Q

Figurative language isn’t _______?

A

Literal.

38
Q

What are similes?

A

Comparisons that use the words ‘like’ or ‘as’.

39
Q

What are metaphors?

A

Comparisons that don’t use ‘like’ or ‘as’

They are usually more implicit than similes, and more powerful.

40
Q

What is personification?

A

Where a non-human object or situation is given human qualities.

41
Q

What is metonymy?

A

Using a part of something to describe the whole thing.

E.g. The term ‘the crown’ can be used to mean the monarchy, as monarchs wear a crown.

42
Q

What do oxymorons do?

A

Bring conflicting ideas together.

43
Q

What are the 5 techniques of figurative language?

A

Similes, Metaphors, Personification, Metonymy, Oxymoron.

44
Q

What is Jargon?

A

‘Specialist vocabulary’ associated with a particular occupation or activity.

E.g. Software developers use the terms ‘spider’ and ‘sticky’ to describe software programs but these words have completely different meanings outside the workplace.

45
Q

What are the 4 techniques of rhetorical language?

A

List of three, Repetition, Hyperbole, Rhetorical questions.

46
Q

What is list of three?

A

Where 3 things are used in a list to give emphasis and build to a climax.

47
Q

What is repetition?

A

When a word or phrase is repeated for emphasis, for emphasis.

48
Q

What is hyperbole?

A

Using exaggeration for effect.

E.g. I’ve told you a hundred times.

49
Q

What are rhetorical questions?

A

Questions that don’t require an answer, as they are phrased in a way that assumes the answer is obvious.

50
Q

What does cohesion do?

A

Links ideas in different parts of a text together.

51
Q

What is grammatical cohesion about?

A

Linking sentences.

52
Q

what is lexical cohesion about?

A

Linking words through meaning and association.

53
Q

What are the two devices used in lexical cohesion?

A

REPETITION- Using the same words more than twice can link separate sentences

E.g. All we could see was RAIN. Anything would have been better than RAIN.

COLLOCATIONS- Words that commonly appear together, and cannot be rearranged.

E.g. ‘Neat and tidy’.

54
Q

What is graphological cohesion about?

A

Making a text look cohesive.

Particularly important in persuasive writing, such as adverts. This is because the aim is to draw the reader’s eye to the most important points, whilst maintaining a consistent pattern.

55
Q

How is graphological cohesion achieved?

A

By using the same typeface for running text, captions and headings, and by using a cohesive colour scheme.

56
Q

What is pragmatics about?

A

How language is used in different social situations.

Looks at how people get their meaning across within different social contexts.

57
Q

What is prosody?

A

The non-verbal aspects of speech.

58
Q

What can prosody do?

A

Change the meaning of something, so looking at prosodic features is really important in pragmatics.

59
Q

What can layout and presentation do?

A

Emphasise meaning.

60
Q

What is juxtaposition?

A

When corresponding texts and images are placed next to each other.

61
Q

What is the advanced name for font?

A

Typeface.

62
Q

What are ascenders?

What are descenders?

A

The bits on the typeface that extend upwards are ascenders.

E.g. letters like ‘d’, ‘h’ and ‘l’.

The bits on the typeface that extend downwards are descenders.

E.g. letters like ‘j’, ‘q’ and ‘y’.

63
Q

What could long ascenders and descenders be used to indicate?

A

Sophistication and elegance.

64
Q

What is leading?

A

The amount of vertical space between lines of type.

It can dictate whether the text is dense and difficult to read, or spaced out.

65
Q

What are serifs?

A

Strokes on the end of letters.

66
Q

Typefaces with serifs tend to seem ___________, whereas sans serif typefaces are considered as more ______.

A
  • Traditional.

- Modern.

67
Q

What does the choice of typeface tell you about?

A

The tone of the text.

Typefaces can seem traditional, informal, stylish, elegant, modern, formal etc. They can be made to look like handwriting, for example.

68
Q

What can bold, italics and underlining place emphasis on?

A

Certain parts of the text to outline importance.

69
Q

Why are words capitalised?

A

To draw attention to them.

70
Q

What can graphics/pictures convey?

A

Meaning.

E.g. Instructional texts use diagrams to make the meaning clearer.

E.g. Children’s books have illustrations to help children learn to read.

71
Q

What are phonetic spellings?

A

B4=Before
U=You
WUU2?=What you up to?