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English Language A Level > Language and Power > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language and Power Deck (28)
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1
Q

What is the purpose of political language?

A

To persuade.

2
Q

What devices do politicians use?

A

Rhetorical devices.

3
Q

What are the 6 rhetorical devices that are commonly used by politicians?

A

Repetition- Those who BETRAY their party BETRAY themselves.

List of three- He came, he saw, he conquered.

First person plural pronoun- WE must strive together for the better health of the nation.

Figurative language- Under our leadership, the WINTER OF DISCOMFORT has become a SUMMER OF PROSPERITY.

Rhetorical questions- How much longer must our people endure this injustice.

Hyperbole (Exaggeration)- Plague would be a better option than the health policies proposed.

4
Q

Legal language is quite distinctive- what is the specific vocabulary used by an occupation group known as?

A

Jargon.

5
Q

What is the syntax like in legal language?

A

Complex, with lots of subordinate clauses. Also repetitive.

6
Q

Due to the complexity of legal language, who gains a lot of power over non-specialists in the area?

A

Lawyers- if their clients don’t fully understand the complex jargon, then they have to trust in their lawyers to understand it.

7
Q

How do teachers assert their instrumental power?

A

By using imperatives and direct questions.

8
Q

Students use _____ imperatives and ask more ________ questions.

A

fewer, indirect.

9
Q

In an educational environment, there’s an imbalance in what?

A

Address terms.

Students might use respectful address terms to the teacher such as Sir or Mr Smith, while teachers usually use the student’s first name.

This shows an understanding that the teacher has authority.

10
Q

What are power structures in the language of business similar to?

A

Power structures in education.

Managers may speak more directly to their employees, using imperatives and direct questions. Whereas, employees may use more politeness strategies and fewer imperatives.

11
Q

What can address terms(what people call each other) show?

A

Power relationships.

12
Q

What can imbalances in address terms reveal?

A

Unequal power relationships.

13
Q

How can initiating a conversation be seen as asserting power?

A

It is seen as taking the lead of the conversation.

14
Q

How can ‘holding the floor’ be seen as asserting power?

A

Usually conversations involve turn-taking, however if a certain individual ‘holds the floor’ they show dominance by not letting anyone else in.

15
Q

How can imperatives be seen as asserting power?

A

Giving orders and directions can be a sign of dominance.

16
Q

How can interrupting be seen as asserting power?

A

It shows that the interrupting person has little interest in what the other speaking is saying, undermining the other inidividual.

17
Q

How can unresponsiveness be seen as asserting power?

A

This is seen as a negative way of asserting control. If the speaker is ignored or the other individual responds with back channel noises (mm or uh huh) then the status of the speaker is undermined.

18
Q

How can questioning be seen as asserting power?

A

Questions direct the topic of conversation, and make it clear when the other person is expected to talk.

However, questioning can be a way to pass control to somebody else to ‘hold the floor’.

19
Q

How can topic changing be seen as asserting power?

A

This can be a technique of reasserting control. By diverting attention to a different topic, they’re trying to gain control over the direction of the conversation.

Politicians often do this when they’re uncomfortable discussing a certain topic.

20
Q

How can closing down a conversation be seen as asserting power?

A

This asserts power by not allowing other speakers to carry on talking.

E.g. saying goodbye or walking away.

21
Q

Why are speakers of Standard English often perceived to have more authority and status than speakers of regional dialect?

A

Because they’re associated with professional jobs and a good education.

22
Q

How can jargon be used to gain power?

A

When specialists use jargon specific to their field, this can intimidate non-specialists, which allows them to have more power and dominance.

Speaking in jargon can hide the reality of what’s going on, as the non-specialist won’t be able to understand the meaning of the terms used.

23
Q

In some circumstances, why is jargon judged to be politically incorrect?

A

It is used to control other people, which is wrong as the world we now live in aims to promote equality.

24
Q

Why does the media hold considerable power?

A

Because they have a big influence on people’s attitudes and values.

  • Bias
  • Prejudice towards certain groups, creating a negative image.
  • Stereotypes
  • Sensationalising
25
Q

What is the most persuasive form of media?

A

Adverts.

  • Showing just attractive people with luxurious lifestyles, persuading the reader to buy the item.
  • Can persuade a certain target audience, by using specific terminology/jargon.
  • The ‘hook’ is the device advertisers use to get the audience’s attention- can be verbal, visual or musical.
26
Q

Which newspapers are more powerful, tabloid or broadsheet?

A

Broadsheet.

27
Q

What is instrumental power?

A

Actual power an individual possesses.

E.g. Teacher over student.

28
Q

What is influential power?

A

Where an individual tries to influence/persuade someone to gain power.