Flashcards in Causes of Chest Pain Deck (16):
Give two common causes of chest pain.
What are some risk factors for coronary atheroma?
What would an ECG show on someone with angina doing a stress test?
What is the difference between stable and unstable angina?
Unstable - the chest pain occurs more frequently and worsened over time, and can occur suddenly without doing exercise.
Give some symptoms of a myocardial infarction
Chest pain and heaviness
What is acute coronary syndrome?
Generally refers to unstable angina and N-stemi
What is unstable angina pectoris?
Exertional angina with new onset OR
Exertional angina which now occurs with less physical exertion OR
Anginal symptoms at rest
Describe coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
When a blood vessel is taken from another area of the body and is grafted onto the heart to bypass a blocked vessel.
Describe a stent
A tube which can be inserted into a coronary artery with a severely narrowed lumen to open it and allow better blood flow to the myocardium.
Describe a coronary balloon angioplasty
Uses a balloon to widen a narrowing in an artery
Describe the signs and symptoms of acute pericarditis
Pain which is dull/sharp/burning
Radiation to the shoulder or neck
Aggravated by inspiration or coughing
Relieved by sitting up and leaning forwards
Pericardial friction rub heard on auscultation
What are the investigations used for an MI?
Cardiac enzymes (TnT, TnI, myoglobin, myocardial CK)
What would you see on an ECG of someone who is having an MI
Pathological Q waves
Inverted T waves
ST elevation if STEMI
What are the treatments for angina?
Beta blockers (atenolol/propanolol)
Calcium channel antagonists (verapamil)
Organic nitrates (glyceryl trinitrate)
What is the management for an acute MI?
Fibrinolytic drugs to break down the thrombus
Long term low-dose aspirin
ACE inhibitors (if hypertensive)