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Flashcards in Causes of Chest Pain Deck (16):
1

Give two common causes of chest pain.

Angina
Heart attack
Pericarditis
Pulmonary embolus
Pneumonia
Pneumothorax

2

What are some risk factors for coronary atheroma?

Hyperlipidaemia/hypercholesterolaemia
Age
Male sex
Family history
Smoking
Hypertension
Diabetes
Obesity
Physical inactivity
Unrelieved stress

3

What would an ECG show on someone with angina doing a stress test?

ST depression

4

What is the difference between stable and unstable angina?

Unstable - the chest pain occurs more frequently and worsened over time, and can occur suddenly without doing exercise.

5

Give some symptoms of a myocardial infarction

Anxiety
Dizziness
Chest pain and heaviness

6

What is acute coronary syndrome?

Generally refers to unstable angina and N-stemi

7

What is unstable angina pectoris?

Exertional angina with new onset OR
Exertional angina which now occurs with less physical exertion OR
Anginal symptoms at rest

8

Describe coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

When a blood vessel is taken from another area of the body and is grafted onto the heart to bypass a blocked vessel.

9

Describe a stent

A tube which can be inserted into a coronary artery with a severely narrowed lumen to open it and allow better blood flow to the myocardium.

10

Describe a coronary balloon angioplasty

Uses a balloon to widen a narrowing in an artery

11

Describe the signs and symptoms of acute pericarditis

Pain which is dull/sharp/burning
Radiation to the shoulder or neck
Aggravated by inspiration or coughing
Relieved by sitting up and leaning forwards
Pericardial friction rub heard on auscultation
Tachypnea
Tachycardia
Fever

12

What are the investigations used for an MI?

Cardiac enzymes (TnT, TnI, myoglobin, myocardial CK)
ECG
Cardiac angiography
Echocardiography

13

What would you see on an ECG of someone who is having an MI

Pathological Q waves
Inverted T waves
ST elevation if STEMI

14

What are the treatments for angina?

Beta blockers (atenolol/propanolol)
Calcium channel antagonists (verapamil)
Organic nitrates (glyceryl trinitrate)

15

What is the management for an acute MI?

Fibrinolytic drugs to break down the thrombus
Long term low-dose aspirin
Beta blockers
ACE inhibitors (if hypertensive)
Statins

16

What is the management for unstable angina?

Antiplatelet therapy (aspirin)
Anti thrombin therapy (warfarin)
May require CABG