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Flashcards in Heart Anatomy Deck (27):

Branches of the left coronary artery

Left circumflex artery
Left marginal artery
Left anterior descending artery (LAD)


Branches of the right coronary artery

Right marginal artery
Posterior interventricular artery


What three structures are associated with valves

Cordae tendinae (tendons)
Attach to papillary muscles
Attach to trabeculae carnae which prevents dilation


Cause of cardiomegaly

Stenosis of valves


Auscultation points

Aortic - 2nd intercostal space, right sternal border
Pulmonary - 2nd intercostal space, left sternal border
Tricuspid - 4th intercostal space, left sternal border
Mitral - 5th intercostal space, left mid-clavicular line


Normal cardiothoracic ratio

Below 50%


Why a murmer can be heard

Turbulence or backflow


Region supplied and vein draining region for the right coronary artery

Right atrium, sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, posterior part of interventricular septum.

Small and middle cardiac veins


Region supplied by and vein draining region of the right marginal artery

Right ventricle and apex

Small and middle cardiac vein


Region supplied by and vein draining region of the posterior interventricular artery

Right and left ventricles, posterior third of interventricular septum

Left posterior ventricular vein


Region supplied by and vein draining region of the left coronary artery

Left atrium and ventricle, interventricular septum, AV bundles

Great cardiac vein


Region supplied by and vein draining region of the left anterior descending artery.

Right and left ventricles, anterior half of interventricular septum

Great cardiac vein


Region supplied by and vein draining region of the left marginal artery

Left ventricle

Left marginal vein and great cardiac vein


Region supplied by and vein draining region of the circumflex artery

Left atrium and ventricle

Great cardiac vein


Branches of the arch of the aorta

Brachiocephalic, left common carotid and left subclavian arteries


What veins join to form the superior and inferior vena cava?

Superior - brachiocephalic veins
Inferior - common iliac veins


Name of the depression in the interatrial septum and its foetal origin

Fossa ovalis from the foramen ovale


Brief description of conduction in the heart

Excitation signal made by SAN
Wave of excitation across the atria causing contraction
Signal delayed at AVN
Conducted into bundle of His, down the interventricular septum
Bundle of His and purkinje fibres spread wave along ventricles, causing them to contract


Functions of the endocardium

Lines the inside of the heart
Regulates contractions
Aids cardiac embryological development (endocardial cushions)


Describe the subendocardial layer

Joins endocardium and myocardium
Loose fibrous tissue
Vessels and nerves of the conducting system of the heart
Contains purkinje fibres


Functions of the pericardium

Fixes heart in the mediastinum and limits its motion
Prevents overfilling as is inextensible
Protection from infection as is a physical barrier between the heart and adjacent organs prone to infection


Structure of the pericardium

Fibrous - continuous with central tendon of the diaphragm. Tough connective tissue, non distensable. Prevents rapid overfilling of the heart

Serous - made from mesothelium
- outer parietal layer which lines fibrous pericardium
- internal visceral layer forms the epicardium
Pericardial cavity with serous fluid to minimise friction


Vessels in front and behind the transverse pericardial sinus

In front: ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Behind: superior vena cava
Below: left atrium


Innervation of the pericardium by the

Phrenic nerve


State the structures in the anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum

Anterior - thymus
Middle - heart/pericardium
Posterior - aorta/oesophagus


Position of the oblique sinus

Surrounds the veins, posterior to the left atrium.


State the branches of the left and right coronary arteries and the veins they are associated with.

Right - right marginal artery (small cardiac vein), posterior interventricular artery

Left - left anterior descending (anterior interventricular artery) (great cardiac vein) and circumflex