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Flashcards in The Lower Limb Deck (257):
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State the muscles that make up the anterior compartment of the thigh

Ilipsoas - psoas major and iliacus
Quadriceps femoris - vastus medialis, intermedius and lateralis, and rectus femoris
Satorius
Pectineus

1

Give the muscles that make up the medial compartment of the thigh

Adductor magnus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Obturator externus
Gracialis

2

What is the most superficial and medial muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh?

Gracialis

3

What is the smallest, most superior muscle of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Obturator externus

4

What is the largest muscle of the medial compartment and where is it located in relation to the other muscles?

Adductor magnus
Posterior

5

What is the longest muscle in the body that is located in the thigh?

Sartorius

6

What nerve innervates the majority of the anterior compartment of the thigh, and what is the exception?

Femoral nerve
Psoas major - anterior rami of L1-L3

7

Function of the psoas major

Flex the lower limb at the hip and assists in lateral rotation

8

Innervation of psoas major

Anterior rami of L1-L3

9

Function of iliacus

Flex the lower limb at the hip and assists in lateral rotation

10

Innervation of iliacus

Femoral nerve

11

What muscles make up the ilipsoas?

Psoas major
Iliacus

12

What muscles make up the quadriceps femoris

Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Vastus lateralis
Rectus femoris

13

Function of the vastus muscles

Extend the knee

14

Innervation of the vastus muscles

Femoral nerve

15

Innervation of the rectus femoris

Femoral nerve

16

Function of the sartorius

Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates at the hip joint
Flexes at the knee

17

Innervation of sartorius

Femoral nerve

18

Function of pectineus

Adduction and flexion at the hip joint

19

Innervation of pectineus

Femoral nerve

20

How and why would you test the quadriceps femoris?

Do for suspected femoral nerve damage.
Patient lies supine with the knee slightly flexed. Ask the patient to extend the leg and resist the movement. Should be able to clearly see the contraction.

21

Which nerve and artery supplies the majority of the medial compartment of the thigh?
What is the exception?

Obturator nerve
Obturator artery
Hamstring part of adductor magnus innervated by the tibial nerve

22

Function of the two parts of the adductor magnus.

Adductor part - adducts and flexes the thigh

Hamstring part - adducts and extends the thigh

23

Innervation of the two parts of adductor magnus

Adductor - obturator nerve

Hamstring - tibial nerve

24

Function of adductor longus

Adducts and medially rotates the thigh

25

Innervation of adductor longus

Obturator nerve

26

Function of adductor brevis

Adduction of the thigh

27

Innervation of adductor brevis

Obturator nerve

28

Function of obturator externus

Lateral rotation of the thigh

29

Innervation of obturator externus

Obturator nerve

30

Function of gracialis

Adduction of the thigh at the hip and flexion of the leg at the knee

31

Innervation of gracialis

Obturator nerve

33

Describe injury to the adductor muscles and the treatment you would recommend.

'Groin strain'
Proximal part of the muscles affected, tearing near their bony attachments
RICE protocol - rest, ice, compression, elevate

34

Describe the main function of the fibula.

An attachment for muscles

35

What if the lateral surface of the fibula that extends inferiorly called?

Lateral malleolus

36

Describe how the lateral malleolus is prone to fracture

Forced external rotation of the ankle so force is exerted on it by the talus, causing a spiral fracture.
Or eversion causing a transverse fracture.

37

Describe the main function of the tibia

Weight bearing
Articulates at the knee and ankle joints

38

Describe the intercondylar eminence

Two tubercles and a roughened area which are the main sites for attachments of the menisci and ligaments of the knee joint.

39

Where does the patellar ligament attach on the tibia?

Tibial tuberosity

40

What marks the posterior surface of the tibial shaft?

Scleal line

41

What is attached to the lateral border of the tibial shaft?

Interosseus membrane

42

What part of the distal tibia articulates with the tarsal bones to form the ankle joint?

Medial malleolus

43

What does the head of the femur articulate with at the hip?

Acetabulum of the pelvis

44

What is the importance of the head of the femur being thin?

Allows for increased range of movement at the hip joint

45

Describe the difference between the greater and lesser trochanters (aside from size)

Greater - originates from anterior shaft. Site of attachment for abductor and lateral rotator muscles of the leg.

Lesser - projects from posteromedial side. Psoas major and iliacus attach here.

46

What is the intertrochantic line in the femur?

A ridge of bone connecting the two trochanters where the iliofemoral ligament attaches.

47

Describe the intertrochantic crest of the femur.

A ridge of bone which connects the two trochanters. Has a quadrate tubercle where the quadratus femoris attaches.

48

Describe the difference between intracapsular and extracapsular fractures of the proximal femur.

Intracapsular - Common in the elderly, can damage the femoral circumflex artery causing avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Leg is shortened with toes pointed inward.

Extracapsular - more common in the young. Blood supply remains intact. Leg shortened and laterally rotated.

49

The femoral shaft has linea aspera, which is rough ridges of bone. Describe what this changes into proximally, distally, and on the lateral border.

Proximally - pectineal line
Lateral border - Gluteal tuberosity
Distally - widens to form the floor of the popliteal fossa.

50

Describe a fracture of the femoral shaft.

Relatively uncommon as it requires a lot of force.
Tend to be spiral fractures with leg shortening
May cause femoral nerve palsy (weakness of the quadriceps primarily) and must ensure that the blood supply hasn't been damaged.

51

What type of joint is the knee?

Hinge synovial joint

52

What type of joint is the hip?

Ball and socket synovial joint

53

Where is the primary attachment for extensor muscles of the thigh?

Posterior ilium

54

Where is the primary attachment for flexor muscles of the thigh?

Anterior ilium

55

Where can the tensor of fascia lata be found?

Deep within the lateral fascia

56

Describe the changes from the aorta into the thigh.

Aorta
Common iliac
(Internal iliac --> obturator)
External iliac
Femoral artery
(Popliteal artery) and
Deep artery of the thigh
- Perforating arteries
- Lateral/medial humeral circumflex

57

Describe the passage of the great saphenous vein to the femoral vein.

From the foot, passes anterior to the medial malleolus, up the medial surface of the thigh, then posterior to the medial condyle of the femur to the saphenofemoral junction where it becomes the femoral vein.

58

Describe the passage of the small saphenous vein.

Passes up the posterior calf and inserts into the popliteal vein.

59

Give the borders of the femoral triangle.

Superior - inguinal ligament
Lateral - medial border of sartorius
Medial - medial border of adductor longus

60

Give the contents of the femoral triangle from lateral to medial.

Femoral nerve
Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Some lymph

61

Where can the femoral artery be palpated?

At the mid-inguinal point.
Midway between the pubic symphysis and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

62

Describe the femoral sheath and it's contents.

Fascia coming together. Contains femoral artery and vein, and some lymph vessels and nodes.
Has a hole for the great saphenous vein

63

Describe the lacuna ligament.

Passes round the medial side of the femoral canal.
Is moon-shaped.

64

Describe the femoral canal.

Within the femoral sheath, contains just the lymph nodes. Allows slight distention of the femoral vein.

65

Describe herniation of the intestine into the femoral canal.

The femoral ring is a weak point.
The lacuna ligament may then constrict the blood supply, causing avascular necrosis.

66

Why is there minimal rotation of the tibia and fibula when the leg is extended?

The collateral ligaments are tighter

67

What bone of the foot articulates with the leg?

Talus

68

Describe the importance of the suprapatellar bursa.

Prevents rubbing on the patellar groove. Connects round and through the knee which means that an infection can easily pass deep into the joint.

69

What are osteophytes?

Bone spurs.
Commonly form at joints due to arthritis.

70

Describe how you could test for rupture of the calcaneus (achilles) tendon.

Grip the gastronemius and squeeze.
Foot won't flex if the tendon has ruptured.

71

If a patient came in with a fractured fibula, what would you look for to see if they had damaged their fibular nerve?

Foot drop

72

What is the pelvic outlet?

The lowermost ring of bones in the pelvis

73

What is the acetabulum?

The socket part of the hip joint.

74

What two ligaments pass across the pelvis to form the sciatic frame?

Sacrospinous ligament
Sacrotuberous ligament.

75

What is the function of the intercondylar notch in the femur?

Stops the tibial tuberosities catching in flexion, and makes room for the cruciate ligaments.

76

Describe an upper tibial fracture

Also known as a bumper fracture. Causes huge swelling and pain.
Check for popliteal artery, tibial and common perineal nerve damage.
Can lead to osteoarthritis at the knee and compartment syndrome.

77

Describe a fracture of the tibial and fibular shafts.

Pain and swelling
Neurovascular injury
May be an open fracture so check for infection
Can lead to compartment syndrome

78

Describe a Pott's fracture

Bimalleolar ankle fracture
Commonly a tackle injury
Can lead to arthritis

79

Describe an intertrochantic fracture

Limb shorter and externally rotated
Can't weight bear
Swelling
No ischaemia

80

Describe a femoral shaft fracture

Occurs most commonly in young aducts
Can cause serious blood loss, shock, pain and swelling.
High risk for a fat embolus due to yellow marrow.

81

Describe how you would conduct a Trendelenburg test.

Ask the patient to stand unassisted on each leg in turn.
If positive, the pelvis will drop on the side of the unsupported leg.
Look for the level of the iliac crest on both sides.

82

State which nerve the Trendelenburg tests, and why.

Superior gluteal nerve
Gluteus minimus and medius normally contract when the contralateral leg is raised, preventing the unsupported pelvis from dropping on that side.tf

83

State the muscles that make up the superficial abductors and extenders in the gluteal region

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus

84

Function of the gluteus maximus

Main extensor of the thigh, assists with lateral rotation.
Only used when force is required.

85

Innervation of the gluteus maximus

Inferior gluteal nerve

86

Function of gluteus medius

Abducts and medially rotates the lower limb.
Secures the pelvis during locomotion, preventing pelvic drop of the opposite limb.

87

Innervation of gluteus medius

Superior gluteal nerve

88

Function of gluteus minimus

Abducts and medially rotates the lower limb.
Secures the pelvis during locomotion, preventing pelvic drop of the opposite limb.

89

Innervation of gluteus minimus

Superior gluteal nerve

90

Function of the piriformis

Key landmark in the gluteal region

91

Innervation of piriformis

Nerve to piriformis

92

Function of obturator internus

Lateral rotation and abduction

93

What muscle forms the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity?

Obturator internus

94

Innervation of obturator internus

Nerve to obturator internus

95

Function of the superior and inferior gemelli

Lateral rotation and abduction

96

What separates the superior and inferior gemelli

Obturator internus tendon

97

State the deep muscles of the gluteal region

Piriformis
Obturator internus
Superior and inferior gemelli
Quadratus femoris

98

Innervation of the superior and inferior gemelli

Superior - nerve to obturator internus
Inferior - nerve to quadratus femoris

99

Function of quadratus femoris

Lateral rotation

100

Innervation of quadratus femoris

Nerve to quadratus femoris

101

Describe how the piriformis is an important landmark of the gluteal region.

Divides into anterior/superior parts.
Division determines the name of the vessels/nerves that supply the area.
Can be used to locate the sciatic nerve which enters the gluteal region directly inferior to the piriformis and is visible as a flat band.

102

What is the ligamentum teres?

Ligament which passes into the head of the femur from the acetabulum with the obturator artery.

103

Where is the acetabulum weakest?

At the bottom: acetabular notch

104

What ligaments strengthen the hip joint?

Acetabular transverse ligament
Iliofemoral ligament
Pubofemoral ligament
Ischiofemoral ligament
Ligamentum teres

105

What part of the femoral neck is largely extracapsular?

Lateral

106

What cartilage is present in the acetabulum before the three bones fuse?

Tri-radate cartilage

107

What are the adductors at the hip?

Adductor magnus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Gracialis
Obturator interni

108

What are the muscles which extend at the hip?

Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Long head of biceps femoris
Gluteus maximus

109

What muscles abduct at the hip?

Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fascia lata

110

What are the lateral rotators at the hip (superior to inferior)

Piriformis
Superior gemellus
Obturator internus
Inferior gemellus
Quadratus femoris

111

What is the piriformis an important landmark for?

Sciatic nerve, which usually runs beneath it

112

What are the anterior, inferior, superior and posterior nerves that supply the hip?

Anterior - Femoral
Inferior - obturator
Superior - superior gluteal nerve
Posterior - nerve to quadratus femoris

113

What arteries are involved in blood supply to the hip?

Deep femoral artery which gives rise to the medial/lateral circumflex femoral arteries that supply the head of the femur.
Obturator artery which supplies the head of the femur through the ligamentum teres, but is unable to support the joint alone.

114

Describe hip dysplasia.

Abnormal growth of the hip changing the angle of the femoral neck or it's relationship with the acetabulum.
Relatively common and is seen in a spectrum.
Can increase the risk of dislocation at birth or sometime later.
Problems with the acetabulum, head of the femur or the support capsule.

115

Describe a slipped upper femoral epiphysis

Fracture through the growth plate which is very problematic if left.
The head is still articulating but the rest has moved.
Check for in a teen with hip pain, can't always be seen on an x-ray

116

Describe hip dislocation

The hip will be shortened and medially rotated.
Very uncommon as huge force is involved (unless congenital)
Can cause damage to the sciatic nerve.
The capsule and acetabulum will be disrupted.

117

Describe a femoral neck fracture

Common in the elderly
Must be fixed quickly as it has a high mortality
Is an intracapsular fracture
Shortened and laterally rotated.
Blood supply may be disrupted, leading to avascular necrosis.
If healthy can be fixed with reduction but if beginning to necrotise will need to be replaced.

118

Describe a trochanteric fracture

Extracapsular so there is decreased risk of necrosis.
Can treat with a dynamic hip screw.

119

Give the important bursae in the hip.

Ilipsoas bursa - below the muscle
Trochanteric bursa - over the greater trochanter
Gluteus medius bursa
Ischiogluteal bursa - on ischeal tuberosity

120

Which bursa of the hip is most likely to become inflamed during horse riding or riding a bike?

Ischiogluteal bursa

121

What is subchondral sclerosis?

Increased bone density or thickening below the cartilage of a joint, usually due to osteoarthritis.

122

Give the stages of rheumatoid arthritis.

Healthy
Synovitis
Pannus - abnormal layer of fibrovascular or granulation tissue
Fibrous ankylosis - fibrous connective tissue process causing decreased range of movement
Bony ankylosis - osseus tissue fuses two bones together, reducing mobility.

123

What are the upper margins of the popliteal fossa?

Medially - semitendinosus and semimembranosus
Laterally - biceps femoris

124

What are the lower margins of the popliteal fossa?

Medially - medial head of gastrocnemius
Laterally - lateral head of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle

125

What is the floor of the popliteal fossa?

Capsule of the knee joint
Adjacent surfaces of the femur and tibia
Popliteus muscle (inferiorly)

126

What is the roof of the popliteal fossa?

Deep fascia (with the small saphenous vein)
- continuous with the fascia lata of the thigh and deep fascia of the leg

127

What are the contents of the popliteal fossa, medially to laterally?

Popliteal artery - under semimembranosus
Popliteal vein - superior to the artery
Tibial nerve
Common fibular nerve

128

What is the function of the biceps femoris?

Flexes the leg at the knee.
Long head also laterally rotates and extends the hip.
With the knee partly flexed, can laterally rotate the leg at the knee.

129

What is the innervation of the biceps femoris?

Long head - tibial nerve
Short head - common fibular nerve

130

What is the function of semitendinosus?

Flexes the leg at the knee and extends the thigh at the hip
Medially rotates the thigh at the hip and the leg at the knee.

131

What is the innervation of semitendinosus?

Tibial nerve

132

What is the function of semimembranosus?

Flexes the leg at the knee and extends the thigh at the hip.
Medially rotates the thigh at the hip and the leg at the knee.

133

Innervation of semimembranosus

Tibial nerve

134

What are the bony surfaces of the knee joint?

Condyles of the femur
Condyles of the tibia
Patellar surface of femur
Articular surface of the patellar

135

What attaches to the epicondyles of the femur?

Lateral collateral ligaments
Adductor magnus (medially)

136

What is the top, flattened part of the tibial surface known as?

Tibial plateau

137

Describe the difference between the medial and lateral surface of the tibial plateau.

Medial is slightly concave
Lateral is slightly convex

138

What is the function of menisci in the knee?

Deepen the tibial element of the knee
Act as shock absorbers
Have a role in synovial fluid movement

139

What are menisci made from?

Fibrocartilage

140

What attaches the menisci to the joint capsule?

Coronary ligament

141

What connects the medial meniscus anteriorly to the knee?

Transverse ligament

142

What muscles help to stabilise the knee joint.

Inferior fibres of vastus medialis/lateralis
Iliotibial tract

143

Describe the passage of the posterior cruciate ligament through the knee.

Passes anteriorly and inserts medially

144

Describe the function of the posterior cruciate ligament

Limits posterior movement of the tibia
Limits hyperflexion
Main stabiliser in a weight bearing flexed knee

145

How do you test the function of the posterior cruciate ligament?

Posterior drawer test.

146

Describe the passage of the anterior cruciate ligament through the knee.

Passes posteriorly and inserts laterally.

147

What is the function of the anterior cruciate ligament?

Limits anterior movement of the tibia against the femur
Limits hyperextension

148

How do you test the function of the anterior cruciate ligament?

Anterior drawer test.

149

Describe the association of the lateral collateral ligament with the knee

Inserts into the fibular head
Sits largely outside the joint capsule

150

Describe the association of the medial collateral ligament with the knee.

Part of the fibroid capsule
Attached to the medial meniscus

151

What reinforces the lateral collateral ligament in the knee?

Ilio-tibial tract

152

What muscles cause flexion at the knee?

Biceps femoris
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Gastrocnemius

153

What muscles cause extension at the knee?

Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Vastus lateralis

154

Why do the knees lock in extension?

Decrease the effort by the muscles to stand

155

Describe the movement of the bones that cause locking of the knees in extension?

Femur rotates internally over the tibia

156

What muscle helps to 'unlock' the knee and how does it do this?

Popliteus
Rotates the femur externally

157

Describe the unhappy triad

Injury to the PCL, ACL and medial meniscus.
Caused by lateral twisting of a flexed knee, usually due to trauma.
ACL is injured because it's taut during flexion

158

Describe the cause of ACL damage

Hyperextension of the knee

159

Describe the cause of PCL damage

A fall onto the tibial tuberosity with a flexed knee as the tibia is pushed back against the femur

160

Why are the menisci less likely to be injured than ligaments at the knee?

They are very mobile.

161

Describe bursitis in the knee

Can be suprapatellar, prepatellar (housemaid's knee) or superficial infrapatellar (clergyman's knee).
Tends to occur due to excessive kneeling.
Is hard to spot the difference between them because they look very similar.
Treat with NSAIDs and rest.

162

Why is osteoarthritis of the knee common?

The knees are weight bearing

163

Describe a popliteal cyst in the knee.

A baker's cyst.
Abnormal fluid-filled sac of synovial membrane, usually in the semimembranosus tendon.
Generally hard and may be tender
Is a sign of chronic knee effusion.
Tends to settle without intervention.
Can connect to the synovium of the knee joint.

164

Give a way in which you could investigate injuries of the knee joint.

Imaging - MRI best for soft tissue
Arthroplasty
Aspiration - blood indicates a fracture
Clinical examination

165

At what point does the femoral artery become the popliteal artery?

On passage through the adductor hiatus

166

What two nerves does the sciatic nerve bifurcate into and where to they run?

Common fibular nerve - runs laterally in the popliteal fossa along the biceps femoris.
Tibial nerve - runs through the centre of the popliteal fossa with the popliteal vein and artery

167

State the contents of the popliteal fossa from lateral to medial.

Common fibular nerve
Tibial nerve
Popliteal vein
Popliteal artery

168

What are the branches of the popliteal artery?

Posterior tibial artery
Anterior tibial artery
Circumflex fibular artery

169

Why is a blocked popliteal artery not a disaster?

There is an extensive anastamoses system.

170

Where does the tibial nerve provide sensory innervation?

Posterolateral and anterolateral leg
Sole of the foot

171

Where does the common fibular nerve provide sensory innervation?

Lateral leg
Dorsal surface of the foot

172

What are the two sets of ligaments of the ankle?

Medial ligament - four separate ligaments which fan out from the medial malleolus. Resists over eversion.

Lateral ligament - three distinct and separate ligaments. Resists over-eversion of the foot.
Anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular, calcaneofibular

173

What muscles cause plantarflexion of the foot?

Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Plantaris
Posterior tibialis

174

What muscles cause dorsiflexion of the foot?

Tibialis anterior
Extensor hallicus longus
Extensor digitorum longus

175

What is most likely to be damaged in an ankle sprain and why?

Lateral ligament. Weaker than the medial ligament and resists inversion.
Anterior talofibular ligament most at risk of irreversible damage.

176

Describe a Pott's fracture

Trimalleolar (both malleoli and tibia) or bimalleolar (both malleoli) fractured due to forced eversion.

177

Explain how a Pott's fracture occurs.

Forced eversion pulls the medial ligaments, causing an avulsion fracture of the medial malleolus.
Talus moves laterally, breaking the lateral malleolus.
Tibia forced anteriorly, shearing the distal and posterior part against the talus.

178

What type of joint is the distal tibiofibular joint?

Syndesmosis - fibrous.

179

What type of joint is the proximal tibiofibular joint?

Plane synovial

180

What type of joint is the ankle?

Rolling hinge synovial joint

181

Describe what is meant by a mortise tenon joint in relation to the ankle.

Concave box arrangement of the malleoli is the mortise

Protrusion of the talus is the tenon

182

Describe the arches of the foot.

Medial longitudinal arch - calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiform, 1-3 metatarsals

Lateral longitudinal arch - calcaneus, cuboid, 4-5 metatarsals

Transverse arch - strengthened by tendons of the leg muscles. Tarsals and metatarsals.

183

Describe the retinacula of the ankle.

Extensor retinaculum anteriorly - superior/inferiorly
Inferior peroneal retinaculum
Superior peroneal retinaculum

184

What would be the consequences of a lack of retinaculum in the ankle?

Risk of bow-stringing

185

What bones articulate to form the ankle?

Tibia (superior and medial articulatory surfaces)
Fibula (lateral articulatory surface)
Talus (superior, inferomedial and inferolateral surfaces)

186

Describe the arches of the foot.

Medial longitudinal arch - calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiform, 1-3 metatarsals

Lateral longitudinal arch - calcaneous, cuboid, 4-5 metatarsals

Transverse arch - strengthened by the tendons of the leg muscles. Tarsals and metatarsals.

187

How many articular surfaces does each tarsal bone have?

6

188

What spinal nerves are tested by dorsiflexion of the foot?

L4-5

189

What spinal nerves are tested by plantar flexion of the foot?

S1-2

190

Describe the deltoid ligament of the foot?

Strengthens the medial surface.
- Tibionavicular ligament
- Calcaneotibial ligament
- Talotibial fibres (deep)

Crossed by tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons which reinforce.

191

Describe the lateral ligament of the foot.

Strengthens the lateral surface.
- Anterior and posterior fibres to talus
- Intermediate fibres to calcaneus

192

Describe a Pott's fracture.

Variety of bimalleolar fractures caused by excessive eversion. Tears off the medial malleolus, then the talus moves laterally and shears off the lateral malleolus.

193

Function of gastrocnemius

Plantarflexion
Flex at knee

194

Innervation of gastrocnemius

Tibial nerve

195

Function of plantaris

Plantarflexion
Flexion at the knee

196

Innervation of plantaris

Tibial nerve

197

Function of soleus

Plantarflexion of the foot

198

What muscles form the calcaneal tendon?

Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus

199

Function of popliteus

Allows initiation of flexion by unlocking the knee
Stabalises the knee joint

200

Innervation of soleus

Tibial nerve

201

Innervation of popliteus

Tibial nerve

202

Function of flexor hallicus longus

Flex great toe
Starts gait cycle

203

Innervation of flexor hallicus longus

Tibial nerve

204

Function of flexor digitorum longus

Flexion of four digits
Plantar flexion

205

Innervation of flexor digitorum longus

Tibial nerve

206

Function of tibialis posterior

Plantarflexion
Supports the arch of the foot

207

Innervation of tibialis posterior

Tibial nerve

208

What muscles pass through the flexor retinaculum in the leg?

Flexor hallicus longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior

209

What arteries branch from the posterior tibial artery?

Fibular
Plantar arch
Medial plantar

210

What artery branches from the anterior tibial artery?

Dorsalis pedis?

211

What artery branches from dorsalis pedis?

Arcuate artery (dorsal arch)

212

Nerve roots of femoral nerve

L2 to L4

213

Cutaneous supply by femoral nerve

Anterior thigh
Anteromedial knee
Medial leg
Medial foot

214

Nerve roots of obturator nerve

L2 to L4

215

Nerve roots of sciatic nerve

L4 to S3

216

Nerve roots of gluteal nerve

L4 to S2

217

Nerve roots of lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh

L2 to L3

218

Cutaneous supply by lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh

Skin of the lateral thigh

219

Nerve roots of the tibial nerve

L4 to S3

220

Cutaneous supply by tibial nerve

Posterolateral leg
Lateral foot
Sole of foot

221

Nerve roots of common fibular nerve

L4-S3

222

Cutaneous supply by common fibular nerve

Upper lateral and lower posterolateral leg

223

Nerve roots of deep fibular nerve

L4-L5

224

Cutaneous supply by deep fibular nerve

Triangular region of skin between 1st and 2nd toes

225

Nerve roots of superficial fibular nerve

L4-S1

226

Cutaneous supply by superficial fibular nerve

Dorsum of foot, anterior and lateral aspect of medial 1/3 of leg

227

What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the leg?

Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus

228

What muscles are in the lateral compartment of the leg?

Fibularis longus
Fibularis brevis

229

Function of tibialis anterior

Dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

230

Innervation of tibialis anterior

Deep fibular nerve

231

Function of extensor digitorum longus

Extension of the lateral four toes and dorsiflexion of the foot

232

Innervation of extensor digitorum longus

Deep fibular nerve

233

Function of extensor hallucis longus

Extension of the great toe and dorsiflexion of the foot

234

Innervation of extensor hallucis longus

Deep fibular nerve

235

Function of fibularis longus

Eversion and plantarflexion of the foot.
Supports the lateral and transverse arches.

236

Innervation of fibularis longus

Superficial fibular nerve

237

Function of fibularis brevis

Eversion of the foot

238

Innervation of fibularis brevis

Superficial fibular nerve

239

Where would you test for the L1 dermatome?

Over the inguinal ligament

240

Where would you test for the L2 dermatome?

Lateral thigh

241

Where would you test for the L3 dermatome?

Lower medial thigh

242

Where would you test for the L4 dermatome?

Medial side of great toe OR
Medial ankle

243

Where would you test for the L5 dermatome?

Medial side of digit II

244

Where would you test for the S1 dermatome?

Little toe OR
Heel

245

Where would you test for the S2 dermatome?

Back of the thigh

246

Where would you test for the S3 dermatome?

Gluteal fold

247

How could you test L2 motor function?

Hip flexion

248

How could you test L3 motor function?

Knee extension

249

How could you test L4 motor function?

Foot dorsiflexion

250

How could you test L5 motor function?

Great toe extension

251

How could you test S1 motor function?

Foot plantarflexion

252

How could you test S2 motor function?

Knee flexion

253

Where could you test the sensory function of the obturator nerve?

Medial thigh

254

Where could you test the sensory function of the sciatic nerve?

Posterior thigh, leg and foot

255

Where could you test the sensory function of the femoral nerve?

Anterolateral thigh, anteromedial leg, dorsum of foot

256

Where could you test the sensory function of the superficial fibular nerve?

Anterolateral leg

257

Where could you test the sensory function of the tibial nerve?

Posterolateral leg