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Flashcards in Drugs Deck (18):
1

Bisphosphonates

Prevent the loss of bone mass, can be used in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Encourage osteoclasts to undergo apoptosis.

2

Succinylcholine

Causes depolarisation block. Opens the AChR but isn't degraded by AChE. Will inactivate sodium channels. Maintained depolarisation will fail to open adjacent sodium channels because they are inactivated.

In anaesthetics, inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to reverse the nicotinic receptor blockade.

3

Procaine/Lidocaine
(Both pathways)

Local anaesthetic, blocks the pore of sodium channels

Hydrophobic pathway - diffuses into the membrane, then blocks the receptor by moving laterally into it. Non use dependent.

Hydrophilic pathway - diffuses through the membrane and is activated by hydrogen ions. Then moves into the pore and blocks it. Use-dependent.

4

Adrenaline

Used in cardiac arrest to restore function and anaphylaxic shock.
Sympathomimetic

5

Dobutamine

Beta 1 agonist
Given in cardiogenic shock to restore heart function

6

Salbutamol

Beta 2 agonist for the treatment of asthma. Causes bronchodilation.

7

Prazosin

Alpha 1 antagonist.
Antihypertensive.
Inhibits NA action on smooth muscle receptors causing vasodilation.

8

Propanolol

Beta1/2 antagonist.
Slows the heart rate and force of contraction.
Also causes bronchoconstriction.

9

Atenolol

Beta-1 antagonist.
Slows heart rate and force of contraction
Minimal bronchoconstriction

10

Pilocarpine

Muscarinic agonist
Treatment for glaucoma
Causes constriction of pupillary muscles, allowing aqueous humour to drain more quickly

11

Atropine

Muscarinic antagonist.
Increases heart rate and bronchodilation
Used to dilate pupils for examination of the eye

12

Neostigmine/pyridostigmine

Reversible anticholinesterases which are broken down much slower than acetylcholine so have relatively long lasting effects.
Used in treatment of myasthenia gravis, can reverse neuromuscular block.

13

Curare

Acetylcholine receptor antagonist, causes paralysis.
Cure using pyridostigmine.

14

Nifedipine

Dihydropyridine
Blocks L-type calcium channels
Lowers blood pressure and reduces angina.

15

Explain supersensitivity.

Agonist deprivation or antagonist exposure which causes upregulation of receptors.

16

Explain desensitisation.

Method to reduce the responsiveness to the continuing or increasing dose of a drug

17

Explain homologous desensitisation

When a receptor reduces its response to a signalling molecule when that agonist is in high concentration.

18

Explain heterologous desensitisation.

Broad unresponsiveness to a variety of agonists after prolonged stimulation by one agonist.