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Flashcards in Ch 10 (Exam 3) Deck (25):


ability to perform routine physical activity without undue fatigue


Aerobic metabolism

  • Uses Oxygen
  • Glucose, protein, and Fat
  • more efficient, produces more ATP/glucose.
  • occurs in the mitochondira


Aerobic capacity

  • Ability to use O2 to produce energy
  •  the more o2 your body can process, the more energy you can make and thus increase your output


Anaerobic metabolism

without O2. only uses glucose and produces LACTIC acid


Ergogenic aid

  • a substance, application, or procedure used/done to improve athletic performance.
  • i.e. Steroids


Overload prinicipal

the body will adapt to stress put on it. to get better, you gotta do better. break the comfort zone


Components of fitness

  1. cardiorespiratory endurance
  2. muscle strength and endurance
  3. flexibility
  4. body composition (fat/muscle/water ect.)


Health benefits of Exercise

  • Improves self esteem overall well-being
  • reduces depression, stress and anxiety, risk of colon and breast cancer, cardiovasular disease
  • weight bearing exercise can reduce risk of OSTEOPOROSIS


Types and amount of exercise to improve health

moderate excercise recommended for

  • 30 min/day for most days of week --> moderate
  • 150 min/week of moderate intensity
  • 75 min/week of vigorous


Calculating max <3 rate and aerobic zone

Max <3 rate: 220-age

Aerobic range: 60%-80% of max <3 rate

moderate intensity @lower end - 60-69% aerobic zone

vigorous intensity @higher end- 70-85% aerobic zone


max <3 rate x 0.6/0.85


Fuels used to generate ATP by anaerobic and aerobic metabolism 


  • only glucose
  • from blood (dietary carbs and glycogen from da liva)
  • muscle glycogen


  • glucose, fatty acids, amino acids
  • fatty acids--> triglycerides and adipose tisue
  • amino acids--> dietary and body protein


Type of fuel used duing activity

(rest, moderate,high)


Source of fuel during exercise


  • liver glygocen/glucose synth by liver  and dietary carbs
    • blood glucose
    • muscle glycogen
      • GLUCOSE


  • dietary protein, body protein
    • Amino acids ----> aerobic
  • Adipose tissue, trigylcerides in muscle
    • Fatty acids-->aerobic


in summary:

  • Anaerobic uses gluocose only. this glucose comes from liver, muscle glycogen or blood glucose.
  • Aerobic uses protein from diet/body, and fatty acids that come from adipose tissue/trigylcerides




FUEL use in exercise intensity

(amino acids, fatty acids, glucose)

At Rest

  • mainly fatty acids
  • glucose
  • amino acids

Moderate intensity

  • half fatty acids and glucose
  • little amino acids

High intensity

  • all glucose


Instant, short term and long term energy sources


  • during 1st few secs of exercise. energy from ATP for a few secs, then creatine phosphate stores are broken down and used to make more ATP. only lasts a few secs.

Short term

  • Anaerobic. uses glucose from blood or muscle glycogen
  • at 30 secs, anaerobic shit is working in full capacity

Long term

  • After 2-3 min, o2 delivery to the muscle has increased enough to suppost aerobic metabolism
  • uses Fatty acids and glucose to make ATP


energy and nutrient needs for athletes and non athletes


  • increased needs for
    • B vitamins
    • calcium
    • iron (for hemoglobin, transfers o2.. rbc. myoglobin, and menstruation)
    • protein (more if strength training)

Non athlete

  • need more energy for da same amount of work


  • same amount of fat needs
  • max glycogen stores should come from carbs
  • protein shoud be plant and animal based 


why are athletes at risk for dehydration and hyponatremia?

loss of fluid through sweat and urination

dont replenish fluid loss with electrolytes.


Fluids that are not recommended during physical activity

  • Alcohol
  • caffiene
  • fruit juice
  • carbonated drinks


recommendations for food and drink during extended (>1 hr) exercise


  • carbs from glucose and fructose
  • sports drinks, gels, food


Glycogen supercompensation.

who benefits. side effects

  • carb loading
  • restin 1-3 days before competition
  • consuming 10-12g of carb/kg of body weight
    • benefits--> those exercising >90 minutes. aka. Enduracne athletes

Side effects

  • weight gain and muscle stiffness


Pre and post exercise meals or snacks

pre meal/snacks

  • adequate fluids to remain hydrated
  • high in carbs
  • moderate protein
  • low in fat and fiber

post meal/snacks

  • protein and carbs together=best. increases glycogen synth
  • to replenish muscle and liver glycogen
    • --> carbohydrates
    • competetive athletes w/ event next day should have 1-1.5 g/kg
  • chocolate milk  (4:1-3:1 ration)
  • whey protein and Leucine
  • Turkey sandwich- carbs w/ protein


female Athlete Triad


  • estrogen is needed for CALCIUM absoption. low levels lead to low peak bone mass.
  • due to low estrogen, calcium and protein


  • no more regualr period
  • extreme eating restrictions combined with exercise causes stuff like starvation which lowers estrogen and causes ammenorrhea

Disordered eating



Anabolic steroids

Synthetic hormones that mimic testosterone

may increase muscle size and strength when combined with diet and exercise


side effects:

  • stunted growth 
  • aggressive behavior
  • oily skin.acne
  • water retention
  • <3 disease (increases LDL, lowers HDL)
  • liver disease
  • reduces testosterone synthesis. 


Effects of ergogenic aids (creatine, erythopoetin, caffeine, carnetine)


  • used to make CP in muscles.
  • potential benefits: high intensity exercise lasting more than 30 sec. no benefit for endurance


  • transports fatty acids-->mitochondira to be converted into energy
  • Theory: spared glycogen
  • no benefit on endurance

Erythropoetin (EPO)

  • stimulated RBC synthesis
  • RBC transports O2 to cells, improves endurance 
  • neg side effects: blood clots, <3 attacks, strokes 


  • stimulant. enhances release of fatty acids.
  • consuming 2-3 cups 1 hr begore can improve endurance,
  • spares glycogen cause it uses fatty acids
  • its a diuretic, so pay attention to hydration