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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (41):
1

Organ

Organ system

a structure that is made up of more than 1 tissue that perfoms a specialized function

 

A group of organs that woek together to perform a specific task

 

 

2

Respiratory system

  • Lungs
  •  trachea 
  • air passageways

supplies blood with O2 and removes CO2

3

Urinary system

  • Kidneys and associated structures

eliminates wastes and regulates the balance of water, electrolytes, and acid in the blood.

* Eliminates metabolic waste products*

4

Endocrine system

  • pituitary gland
  • adrenal gland
  • thyroid gland

secretes that regulate process such as growth, reprodution, and nutrient use

 

*HORMONES*

5

Digestive system organs

  • mouth
  • pharynx
  • salivary glands
  • esophagus
  • liver
  • stomach
  • pancreas
  • gallbaldder
  • small intestine
  • large intestine
  • anus
  •  

6

Digestion

Breaking down of food into nutrients so they can be absorbed

7

Absorption

goes from inside the lumen to the body 

8

Mucus

secreated from mucosal cells lining the digestive tract

  • moistens
  • lubricates
  • protects

9

Enzymes

speed up reactions

for digestion, they help break down larger molecules into smaller ones

 

10

hormones

chemicals secreted from cells which travel through bloodstream to signal cells in another part of the body

11

bolus

ball of food with saliva

 

12

Epiglottis

blocks food from entering TRACHEA (windpipe) and lungs during swallowing

13

Sphincters

 

Lower esophageal sphincter

pyloric sphincter

14

Stomach

serves as TEMPORARY STORAGE of food

the stomach lining produces gastric juices

the churning of stomahc muscles mixes food

  •   very little absorption
  • water, alcohol, aspirin, tylenol

ends in chyme

leaves through pyloric sphincter to small intestine 

 

15

Gastric juice

Contains:

  • water 
  • pepsiongen (precurser to pepsin-digestive enzyme for protein)
  • Mucus
  • Hydrochloric Acid (Hcl)

16

Hydrochloric acid in stomach

 

  • kills microorganisms
  • unfolds protein (denaturing)
  • activates pepsin
  • inhibits amylase (dig. enzyme for carbs)

17

small intestine

approx 20 ft long

MAIN SITE OF DIGESTION, ABSORPTION

divided in 3:

  • duodenum
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum

 

inside of it is called lumen. 

has large circular folds

 

 

18

segmentation

rhytmic constrictions that move food. like peristalsis

19

 Accessory organs to digestion

  • Liver
  • gallbladder
  • pancreas
  •  

20

Pancreas (juice it secretes)

secretes pancreatic juice containing

  • bicarbonate- neutralized stomach acid
  • pancreatic amylase- digestion of carbs
  • pancreatic proteases- protein breakdown
  • pancreatic lipases- fats

PA,PP,PL and bicarbonate

21

Brush border

secretes digestive enzymes for

  • Carbohydrates
  • proteins 

 

are on microvilli?

22

Liver function

  • produces and secretes BILE
  • emulsifies fat so lipases can access molecules

23

gallbladder function

stores bile and releases it? 

24

 Types of transport across membranes 

  • Difusion
    • simple
    • facilitated
  • Osmosis
  • active transport

A image thumb
25

Diffusion (simple and facilitated)

movmement of substances from HI-->LO areas of concentration

  • Simple
    • diffusion across membranes
  • Facilitated
    • diffusion though a membrane protein

26

Osmosis

diffusion of WATER across membranes

27

Active transport

movement of substances aceoss membranes against concentration gradients through membrane protein

*requires energy*

28

Large Intestine

~5 ft long

  • cecum
  • ascending colon
  • transverse colon
  • descending colon
  • sigmoid colon
  • rectum
  • anus

absorption of water, some vitamins and mineals

forms feces/shit

has intestinal micoflora (gut microbiome)

29

Intestinal microflora

  • beneficial bacteria
  • breaks down fiber
  • synthesizes some vitamins

Probiotics

  • cibtaubs beneficial bacteria

prebiotics

  • food supply for said beneficial bacteria

30

Gastrointestinal tract

Q image thumb

  • mouth saliva lubricates, amylase starts carb dig, chewing 
  • pharynx epiglottis keeps shit in right path
  • esophagus peristalsis begins
  • stomach food storage, acid killz, unflods proteins, activates pepsin produces chyme
  • small intestines most dig. and abs. pancreatic enzymes digest and bicarbonate neutralizes acid. bile emulsifies fat
  • large intestines absorb water, bacteria digest fiber, make vitamins
  • rectum stores feces

31

Water soluble nutrients are absorbed into

capillaries then circulatory system

Cap--> Circ 

32

Lipid soluble nutrients are absorbed into

Lacteals then lymphatic system

empties into circulatory system

 

Lipds-->Lacteals-->Lymphatic system

33

metabolism

breakdown/syntehsis of molecules

cells use nutrients for energy or to build structures and regulatory molecules

34

white blood cells (types)

in digestive tissue, they recognize and destory foreign antigens

  • Phagocytes 
    • eat organisms
  • lymphocytes
    • destory infected cells or secrete anitbodies that bind to antigens leading to their destruction

35

 Food allegies

immune system reacts to nonharmful antigens called ALLERGENS

  • 1st exposure
    • production of ANTIBODIES
  • 2nd exposure
    • release of HISTAMINE
    • symptoms ensure
      • redness, swelling, hives, tingling on tongue/lips, difficulty breathing, decreased bp, vomitting, cramps

anaphylactic shock is a hella allergic shock that needs epinephrine (epi-pen) 

common allergies: peanuts, milk, soy, wheat

36

Celiac disease

Autoimmune condition due to allergic reaction to protein in wheat, rye and barley that form:

gluten

makes the lumen of small intestine to flatten

  • reduces surface area
  • malabsoprtion results

symptoms:

  • bloating
  • abdominal cramps
  • weight loss
  • anemia (iron deficiency in this case)

NO cure

only treatment: avoid foods with gluten

(Rye, wheat, barley, some oats)

can eat: 

potatoes, beans, vegetable, fruit, meat

37

Heartburn VS GERD

heartburn is occasional reflux


GERD is chrnoic 

can lead to:

  • esophageal bleeding
  • ulcers
  • cancer of esophagus

Management:

  • smaller meals
  • beerages between meals
  • avoiding fatty foods, chocolate, peppermint
  • upright after eating
  • avoid smoking/ alcohol

 

38

Peptic ulcers

penetration of mucus lining which allows pepsin to damage to damage GI lining

helicobacter pylori (h.pylori)

 

39

Gallstones

solid material accumulates in the gallbladder and/or ducts that drain bile to small intestine

 

symptom: pain

may need cholecystectomy

gall bladder removal 

need to avoid fatty shit

40

Diarrhea 

frequent watery stool

caused by:

  • bacterial or vial infections
  • medications
  • chronic diseases
  • passage of undigested food into large intestine 

41

Constipation

dry hard stoold

caused by

  • too little fiber in diet
  • too little water in diet
  • lack of exercise
  • cerain meds

can lead to diverticula

pouches protruding out from colon wall

pressure on colon wall, can become infected and perforate and spill into body