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Flashcards in chapter 8 Deck (34):
1

Minerals in the body

acquired through diet
varying bioavaliability

2

Oxalates

in spinach and shit. Interfere w/ absoroption of calcium and iron

3

Tannins

found in tea and grains. interfere w/ absoprtion of iron

4

phytic acid/ phytate

in whole grains, bran, soy, bind calcium, zinc iron and magnesium, limiting the absorption of these ZINC MG,

5

functions of minerals

COFACTORS
regulate body process
fluid regulation
bone health
BP reguation
Muscle contraction
Nerve transmission

6

Major minerals

Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sulfur
SSPPCCM

sodium, potassium, chloride=electrolytes
hella big in fluid regulation

7

sodium

major mineral
Nacl. table salt
Fluid balance
w/ potassium--> nerve transmission
muscle contraction

AI: 1,500 mg/day for adults under 51
min to fucntion: 180 mg
UL: 2,300/day

8

potassium

fluid balance
nerve transmission
muscle contraction
can help lower high BP

food sources:dairy, nuts, legumes,
PLANT BASED diet
fruits, veggies,

too much= abnormal heartbeat
Cardiac arrest

too little= muscle weakness, irregular <3beats

9

Which of the following individ. Is most likely to consume adequate amounts of potassium on their diet

. Someone following thr Mediterranean diet

10

Calcium

MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN DA BODY

when calcium levels are hihg:
calcitonin is high
calcium loss from bone
low PTH

Hypercalcemia= too much.
imparied kidney func.
calcium deposits
risk of calcium stones
constipation
can interfer w/ absoprtion of zinc, iron, mg

too little= Osteopenia
reduced bone density
precursor to osteoperosis

11

phosphorus

2nd most abundant mineral in body
most located in bones
energy bonds of ATP
acid/base regulation
food sources:
animal based foods

too much = calcification deposits
poor bone density

12

A majprity of the water in the body is locsted in the
A.extracellular
BA.intracellular
C.interstitial
D.intravascular

Intracellular

in da cells

13

The adequate ontake for sodium for people under 51 years old is
1000 mg/day
1500
200
2300

1500

14

The hormone responsible for maintaining adequate levels of calcium in the blood is
Antidiuretic hormone
Gastrin
Parathyroid hormone
Inuslin

parathyroid hormone

15

The regulation tjat defines whst a dietary supplement is and established labeling standards for a supplement is
DSHEA
cGMP
Us. Pharmacopial labeling act
Dietary supplement practice act

DSHEA

16

Magnesium

Major mineral in body
closely associated w/ phosphorus

stabilized ATP
VIT D ant PTH regulation
nerve nd muscle unc

BONE structure
about 50% in bones
BP regulation

whole grains
most in Germ and bran
isnt replaced in enrichment


deficiency
changes in BP and <3beat

17

High Blood Pressure

hypertension
silent killa
risk of
atheroscerloris
stroke
kidney failure

uncontrollabe factors:
family history, aging, ethnicity

18

Which of the following minerals is not associated with the improvement of blood pressure
Phophorus
Calcium
Magnesium
Potassium

Phosphorus

19

DASH
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

High in whole grains, fruits, veggies, low fat dairy
8-10 servings of fruit and veggies
2-3 servings of low fat dairy
6-8 servings of whole grains

lower in sat fats, cholesterols and weets,

impoved results if reduced sodium intake
diet high in potassium, mg, and calcium

20

Sulfur

cysteine and methionene
assit w/ 3D protein sturcture

found inprotein in foods
thiamin and biotin
nonfood addtives

21

Trace minerals

iron, zinc, manganase, selenium, iodine, fluoride, chromium and molybdenum

less than 100 mg a day

22

Iron

Heme-iron
Non-heme ion

Part of hemoglobin in RBCs
transports O2
picks up CO2 waste

myoglibin--> stores O2 in muscles
helps enzymes make neutrotransmitters in brain
immune function

MOST COMMON DEFICEINCY IN US and WORLDWIDE


women need more iron than men b/c of periods

23

Heme-iron vs. non-heme iron

part of myoglobin and hemoglobin
ANIMAL SOURCES
easily absorbed


non-heme iron
not easily absorbed
PLANT FOODS
iron enriched break and grain, legumes, apricots, potatoes

to enhance absoption of non-heme: consume foods high in vit C
have some damn meat
cook foods in iron pan/skillets

24

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Most common nutritional deficiency in the world.
microcytic anemia. dont have hemoglobin in them

25

Iron Toxicity

also hella common

Constipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
overload can fuck up <3, kidneys, liver and NS

Hemochromatosis- genetic disorder that can cause iron overload

26

Copper

is part of hella proteins
connective tissue synth, lipid metabolism

Is tied to IRON status
part of protein needed to transport iron from intestinal cells

deficiency:
affects immune func, collagen synth, cholesterol levels
can be result of overload of zinc supp

dietary sources: organ mean, seafood, chocolate, nuts,seeds, whole grain

27

Zinc

trace mineral

involved w/ enzymes

DNA and RNA synth
production of WBCs
wound healing
stabalization of cell membranes

Absorbed better from animal sources than plant ones

bioavalibility reduced due to phytate, fiber, o xalate, tannins

vegetarians may need to consume 50% or more from diet

28

Selenium

trace mineral

part of selected enzymes called selenoproteins

help regulate thyroid hormones
act as antioxidant
possible prevention of colon and prostate cancer?

food:
meat, seafood, ceral, grains, dairy, fruits

too much = Selenosis
causes brittle nails loss of hair, rash garlicky breath, NS damage

KESHAN DISEASE

29

Keshan disease

Selenium deficiency
damages the heart
seen in rural areas

30

Fluoride

protects against dental caries
bone health

sources: fluorated drinking water
foods are NOT good source

ta, bones of marine fish and toothpaste

too much= fluorsis- molting and staining during infancy

too litte: increases risk of dental caries

31

Iodine

trace mineral
thyroid function
needed to make hormones
sources:
iodized salt

excess can impair thyroid func

inadequate intake: Enlarged thyrid gland. GOITER

iodine deficiency during early stages of fetal development= CRETENISM

32

CRETENISM

iodine deficiency during early fetal development

33

GOITER

enlarged thyroid gland
iodine deficiency

34

A dietary source of non heme iron includes
Milk
Beans or legumes
Beef
Sardines

beans and legumes


non heme come from plants.