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1

Nutrition

a science that studies how nutrients and compounds in foods we eat affect the body functions and health.

nutrients provide energy, structure to the body and regulate processes within the body

2

Fortified foods

foods which one or more nutrient are added to it.
Ex. Vitamin D to Milk

3

Phytochemicals

Non-nutrient substances found in food and thought to be beneficial to human body

Found in PLANT BASED foods and are generally the pigment in foods

4

Zoochemicals

Non-nutrient substances found in food and thought to be beneficial to human body

Found in ANIMAL based foods

5

Functional foods

provide health benefits beyond functions of nutrients
ex. broccoli prevents cancer. oatmeal lowers cholesterol. salmon prevents heart disease

6

Nutrient Dense Vs. Energy Dense

Nutrient dense has more nutrition per kCal

energy dense has more kCal per nutrient.

ex. milk vs. ice cream

7

Six classes of Nutrients

Divided into Macronutrients and Micronutrients

Macronutrients are needed in high amount and are energy yielding.
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
water (not energy yielding)
carbon containing (organic) and calorie containing

Micronutrients are needed in small amounts. Essential.
vitamins
minerals
both organic and carbon containing

8

Carbohydrates

Macronutrient
primary function: ENERGY
(4 kCal/gram)

starches, sugar, fiber

(blueberried, legumes)

9

Lipids

Macronutrient
primary function: ENERGY
(9 kCal/gram)
hydrophobic, will not dissolve in h2O

10

Protein

Macronutrient
provides ENERGY
(4kCal/gram)
contains: C, H2, O2, N2

predominantly found in ANIMAL based products

11

Nutrition functions (structure)

ENERGY:
Calorie= kilocalorie (kcal) = 1000 calories

STRUCTURE:
bones, hair, skin, muscles, cell membranes and shape (carbs, lipids, proteins, water, minerals) NOT Vitamins.

12

Nutrition functions (regulate body processes)

Body temp, BP, hormones and cell communication, enzymes

(Carbs, proteins, lipds, water, vitamins, minerals) ALL are included in regulating body processes

13

Calculating calories

12 g carbs x 4 kcal/gram= 48
8 g protein x 4 kcal/gram= 32
8g fat x 9 kcal/gram= 72

add up to find # of calories

14

Nutrition related diseases (from top 10)

low to high

Diabetes
stroke
cancer
heart disease

15

Nutrigenomics

your risk of disease results from interplay between the genes we inherit and the diet and lifestyle choices we make

16

Components of a healthy diet (3)

Variety
Balance
Moderation

achieved by eating shit
high in:
fruits, veggies, whole grains, fiber, PLANT BASED FOODS

low in:
unhealthy fats( Trans fat, saturated fats, cholesterol

17

Scientific method

a systematic, unbiased approach used to gain new info and knowledge. used to investigate between food/nutrients and health

steps:
Observation
Hypothesis
Experiment
Theory

18

Types of nutrition studies

Clinical Trials:
done in humans
compares on group getting tx and other not

Laboratory experiments:
animal studies
biochemical/biological studies
hella controlled

Epidemiology:
studies populations
disease trends and patters
does not prove cause and effect

*think epidemic. epidemiology. large groups of people.