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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (25):
1

Sources of protein (dietary sources)

Animal Based: 

  • meat, eggs, dairy
  • provideB bitamine and some absorbable minerals
  • HIGH IN SAT FAT AND CHOLESTEROL

Plant based:

  • grains, nuts, legumes (peas, peantuts, beans, soybeans,lentils)
  • High in FIBER, phytochemicals and unsat fat
  • Low in  SAT FAT. NO CHOLESTEROL

2

Structure of proteins

contain:

  • carbon
  • hydrogen
  • oxygen
  • NITROGEN
  • CHON

elemental compononent of proteins are A M I N O  A C I D S 

    Amino acids:

  •        Acid group (-COOH)
  •         Amine group (-NH2)
  •         Unique side chain

 

3

Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids ( the amount of them)

20 different amino acids. 9 are essential. 11 are nonessential

conditionally essential amino acids cannot be made in body in adequate amounds under certain conditions

 

4

Essential Amino Acids

  • Histidine 
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Methionine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine

PVT. TIM HaLL 

 

5

Peptide bond

The bond between 2 amino acids in which the acid group of 1 amino acids is connected to the AMINE group of another amino acid

 

Dipeptide: 2 amino acids

tripeptide: 3 amino acids

Polypeptide: many

 

6

Denaturation

Alteration of a proteins 3D structure

due to heat, acids, bases or salts

ex. cooking meat or eggs will denature the protin

 

with HCl in stomach, denaturing is going on in us 

7

Protein digetsion and absorption

  • Mouth
  • Stomach (HCl, and pepsin)
  • small intestine (enzymes secreted from pancreas. polypetides broken into amino acids, dipeptide and tripeptides) P E P S I N
  • tansport proteins move digestion into mucosal cell
  • dipeptides and tirpeptides enter mucosal cell. they are broken down into single amino cids
  • amino acids pass from mucosal cell into blood and travel to the LIVER.
  • little dietary protein is lost in feces

8

pepsinogen and pepsin

Pepsiogen= inactive

pepsin= acitve

9

Absoption of amio acids need what kind of transport?

A C T I V E    T R A N S P O R T 

 amino acids move from LOW conc  to HIGH conc 

10

Creation of nonessential amino acids

Transfer of amene group from one animo acid to another.

 T R A N S A N I M A T I O N

 

11

Synthesis of new proteins ( what molecules carry out instructions for protein synth? and the steps of the process)

  • mRNA
  • tRNA
  • Ribosomes

DNA cant lead the nucleus. so it sends mRNA to leave the nuceleus and go into the cytoplasm and it gets wid a ribosome. and then the tRNA reads the mRNA

 

  1. protein synth starts in N U C L E U S by transcribing the shit from DNA into mRNA (transcription)
  2. mRNA takes genetic info from nuclues to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where proteins are made.
  3. tRNA read the genetic code and delievers needed amino acids to ribosomes to form a polypeptide chain. (translation)

12

Protein functions

  • speed up chem. reactions (enzymes)
  • structures
  • some chemical storage (hormones)
  • transportation of substances
  • movement of muscles
  • immunity
  • blood clotting
  • fluid balance

13

Using proteins for energy

Amino acids are not stored in da body

when caloric intake is not met, amino acids can be used as a source of glucose to make energy. 

but before the amino acids are used, the amine group in them needs to be removed through  D E A N I M A T I O N 

it procudes urea, which is exreted in da urine

14

Inadequate protein intake

poor energy intake for prolonged periods may cause protein deficiency causing

 E D E M A

and increased infections

PEM (protein-energy mannutriton)- covers a range of protein/ energy deficiency conditions

15

Kwashiorkor VS. Marasmus 

Kwashiorkor

Pure P R O T E I N deficiency

Edema in da belly

Marasmus 

severe engergy and protein deficiency 

chacterized by wasting.

16

Protein Excess

elevated protein intake over long periods of time result in

  • hydration and kidney function issues
  • increased calcium loss in urine
  • effects on bone health is questionable
    • Increased risk for:
      • heart disease
      • cancer
      • kidney stones
      • can displace other nutrient and fiber rich foods associated w/ a reduced risk of chronic diseases. whole grains, fruits, veggies. cardiovascular disease and cancer

17

Food allergies and intolerances 

Food allergies are triggerd when a protein from the diet is abosorbed w/o being completely digested

18

Celiac Disease

Autoimmune disease due to allergic reaction to protein in wheat, rye, and barley

G L U T EN  in da grain

the lumen of the small intestine is Flattened

 

19

RDA for protein in adults

0.80 g/kg/day

the more you weigh, the more protein you need. also if you're pregnant or lactating, have an injury/infeection or are an athlete 

 

 

20

AMDR for protein

10-35%

 

 

how much is needed?

140 lbs--> 63.6 kg

(140/2.2) = kg

k3.6 kg x 0.8 g/kg= 51 kg protein/day

21

complete dietary proteins

proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids w/ some nonessential ones.

 

ex: animal proteins, soy proteins. maybe quinoa 

22

Incomplete proteins

proteins low in onre or more animo acid

"limiting amino acid"

ex plant proteins

 

they are made complete by adding complementary proteins.

ex: rice and beans

23

Types of vegetatarian diets

Semivegitarian

  • no red meat

Pescetarian

  • excludes all animals except fish

Lacto-ovo vegetarian

  • exludes all animals but includes eggs and dairy

lacto vegetarian

  • excludes all animal shit. includes dairy

vegan

  • excludes all animal shit

24

benefits of vegetarian diets

lower body weight

reduced incidences of

  • high BP
  • type 2 diabetes
  • <3 disease
  • certain cancerts

 

Benefits:

  • high fiber and phytochemicals
  • low saw fat and cholesterol diet

25

concerns for VEGAN diets

nutirents at risk

protein

VITAMIN B12

calcium/ vit D

iron

Zinc

omega 3 fatty acids (DHA, EPA)