Ch 11 (exam 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 11 (exam 3) Deck (19):

Amniotic sac

membrane that surrounds the fetus. contains amniotic fluid



  • secretes hormones that support pregnancy
  • transfers O2 and nutrients from maternal and fetal blood
  • removes waste


Birth weights (very low, low, pretrm, LGA,SGA)


preterm/premature: born before 37 weeks of gestation

Low birth weight: >5.5 lbs(2.5kg)

Very low birth weight >3.3 (1.5kg)

Large or small for Gestational age-->self explanatory 

SGA--> risk of increased illness/death

LGA--> increased risk of being obese later in life


weight gain during pregnancy

the fatter you are, the less weight you should gain during pregnancy.

underweight gains the most (30), followed by, normal, overweight and obese(15).


 heartburn, constipation and morning sickness during pregnancy


  • common cause the sphincter relaxes, which allows acidic stomach shit to leak into the esophagus. 
  • as pregnancy progresses, it gets worse cause the uterus crowds the stomach


  • relaxed muscles of the colon are less efficient
  • becomes more of a problem in later pregnancy cause pressure is exerted from the fetus. 

morning sickess

  • could be linked to hella hormones


Nutritional needs during pregnancy

(energy, protein, fat, fluid, calcium, vit d, folate,iron)


  • 1st trimester: none
  • 2nd: incresed by 340 cal
  • 3rd: increased by 432 cal
  • causes increase in need for B vitamine (thaimin, niacin, roboflavin)


  • Increased by 25 g above RDA


  • because of increased blood volume


  • increased intake of ESSENTIAL Fatty Acids
  • L I N O L E I C &  A L P H A  L I N O L E N I C acid
  • gets incorporated in placental and fetal tissues
  • DHA and ARA (arachadonic acid) needed for fetal development of: EYES and NERVOUS SYSTEM



  • SAME as non preg. but the calcium absorption in GI DOUBLES
  • inadequate calcium intake linked to--->Preeclampsia 

Vitamin D

  • SAME as non preggo
  • adequate vit D needed for calcum absoprtion


  • Needed fir DNA synth and cell division
  • for infant: risk of neural tube defects (spina bifida and anancephaly), premature delivery, Low birth weight 
  • prevents MACROcytic anemia
  • recommended intake before and during pregnancy. More from folic acid and and additional amount(not as much) from folate, since folate is easier to absorb 


  • additional iron needed for production of additional RBC. prevent anemia and for fetal growth and deveoplent
  • supplements recommended since its hard to get in the diet


  • additional needed for synth of proteins
  • RNA,DNA synth




factors that increase risk assocaited with pregnancy

  • alchohol intake--> Fetal Alcohol syndrome
  • cigarette smoke-->carbon monoxide in cig binds to hemoglobin in blood and reduced O2 delivery to fetus. 
  • nicotine=teratogen
  • affects brain development
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

excessive caffiene--> low birth weight babies, miscarriage

Mercury can cause, brain, hearing, and vision problems (careful w/ excess fish intake)

  • Food borne illness: LISTERA MONOCYTOGENS. 
    • found in uncooked hotfogs
    • lunch meat
    • unpasteurized milk/cheese


food cravings and aversions


due to hormones, aversions or cravings may arise.


craving for non food items--> PICA

ex. eating soil



chemical or biological substance present in environment, cosumed in diet, meds, or recreational drug use


critcal periods of development


embryonic development

CNS, <3, extremeties, eyes, ears, //// teeth, genitalia (going into fetal development, )  

fetal development


  •  may be fucked due to shitty folate or folic acid intake
  • having too much PREFORMED VIT A can harm fetus' kidneys and CNS


Gestational diabetes

high blod glucose level that develops during pregnancy

concerns for infant

  • LGA
  • developing DM (type 2 diabetes) later in life
  • difficult delivery
  • low blood glucose levels after delivery

Risk factors for developing GDM

  • overweight/obese
  • over 25
  • family history
  • being hispanic, af amer, nat amer
  • history of GDM or previously large baby


pregnancy induced hypertension

(gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia)


  • Gestational hypertension
  • preeclampsia
    • high BP w/ severe edema and protein in urine
    • no cure, medical monitoring
    • if severe, bed rest is required
    • can reduce blood blow to fetus. risk of SGA infant
  • eclampsia
    • seizures in mother
    • major cause of death in preggo women

most common in women who:

  • diagnosed w/ HTN before preg
  • diagnosed w/ kidney disease before preg
  • under 18 or over 35
  • low income mamas
  • may be due to low calcium. some supplementation may be needed for women


Milk production and let down (prolactin, oxytocin)

prolactin: triggers production of milk in breast

oxytocin: causes milk to be let down


energy, water, essential FA needs for lactating women

first 6 months

  • extra 500 calories needed
  • 170 come from fat stores
  • 330 come from diet?

during 2nd six months

  • 400 calories/day from food


  • increased by 25g/day above DRI


  • mom needs additional liter of water/day
  • avoid alcohol and drugs, limit caffeine, careful with meds


shit that isnt incresed in pregnancy and lactation

dont increase

  • vit d
  • calcium


  • folate


iron needs are reduced during lactation.


benefits of breast feeding


fluid produced after birth--> Colostrum (low in fat, high in immune factors)

~ 6 days after, breast milk is produced

  • high in lactose for calcium absorption 
  • more digestible form of protein (alpha lactalbumin)
  • iron, zinc loc, but readily absorbed by infant



Calorie distribution infants get from milk VS recommended carorie distribution of adults



  • Carbs 40%---> mst comes from lactose
  • Fat 54%
  • protein 6%
  • also need sufficient DHA and omega 6 FA arachidonic acid


  • carbs 45-65 %
  • fat 20-35% 
  • protein 10-35%