Ch 11 (exam 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 11 (exam 3) Deck (19):
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Amniotic sac

membrane that surrounds the fetus. contains amniotic fluid

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placenta

  • secretes hormones that support pregnancy
  • transfers O2 and nutrients from maternal and fetal blood
  • removes waste

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Birth weights (very low, low, pretrm, LGA,SGA)

 

preterm/premature: born before 37 weeks of gestation

Low birth weight: >5.5 lbs(2.5kg)

Very low birth weight >3.3 (1.5kg)

Large or small for Gestational age-->self explanatory 

SGA--> risk of increased illness/death

LGA--> increased risk of being obese later in life

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weight gain during pregnancy

the fatter you are, the less weight you should gain during pregnancy.

underweight gains the most (30), followed by, normal, overweight and obese(15).

5

 heartburn, constipation and morning sickness during pregnancy

<3burn

  • common cause the sphincter relaxes, which allows acidic stomach shit to leak into the esophagus. 
  • as pregnancy progresses, it gets worse cause the uterus crowds the stomach

Constipation

  • relaxed muscles of the colon are less efficient
  • becomes more of a problem in later pregnancy cause pressure is exerted from the fetus. 

morning sickess

  • could be linked to hella hormones

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Nutritional needs during pregnancy

(energy, protein, fat, fluid, calcium, vit d, folate,iron)

Energy

  • 1st trimester: none
  • 2nd: incresed by 340 cal
  • 3rd: increased by 432 cal
  • causes increase in need for B vitamine (thaimin, niacin, roboflavin)

Protein

  • Increased by 25 g above RDA

Fluid

  • because of increased blood volume

Fat 

  • increased intake of ESSENTIAL Fatty Acids
  • L I N O L E I C &  A L P H A  L I N O L E N I C acid
  • gets incorporated in placental and fetal tissues
  • DHA and ARA (arachadonic acid) needed for fetal development of: EYES and NERVOUS SYSTEM

 

Calcium

  • SAME as non preg. but the calcium absorption in GI DOUBLES
  • inadequate calcium intake linked to--->Preeclampsia 

Vitamin D

  • SAME as non preggo
  • adequate vit D needed for calcum absoprtion

Folate

  • Needed fir DNA synth and cell division
  • for infant: risk of neural tube defects (spina bifida and anancephaly), premature delivery, Low birth weight 
  • prevents MACROcytic anemia
  • recommended intake before and during pregnancy. More from folic acid and and additional amount(not as much) from folate, since folate is easier to absorb 

Iron

  • additional iron needed for production of additional RBC. prevent anemia and for fetal growth and deveoplent
  • supplements recommended since its hard to get in the diet

Zinc

  • additional needed for synth of proteins
  • RNA,DNA synth

 

 

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factors that increase risk assocaited with pregnancy

  • alchohol intake--> Fetal Alcohol syndrome
  • cigarette smoke-->carbon monoxide in cig binds to hemoglobin in blood and reduced O2 delivery to fetus. 
  • nicotine=teratogen
  • affects brain development
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

excessive caffiene--> low birth weight babies, miscarriage

Mercury can cause, brain, hearing, and vision problems (careful w/ excess fish intake)

  • Food borne illness: LISTERA MONOCYTOGENS. 
    • found in uncooked hotfogs
    • lunch meat
    • unpasteurized milk/cheese

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food cravings and aversions

PICA

due to hormones, aversions or cravings may arise.

 

craving for non food items--> PICA

ex. eating soil

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teratogen

chemical or biological substance present in environment, cosumed in diet, meds, or recreational drug use

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critcal periods of development

fertalization

embryonic development

CNS, <3, extremeties, eyes, ears, //// teeth, genitalia (going into fetal development, )  

fetal development

 

  •  may be fucked due to shitty folate or folic acid intake
  • having too much PREFORMED VIT A can harm fetus' kidneys and CNS

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Gestational diabetes

high blod glucose level that develops during pregnancy

concerns for infant

  • LGA
  • developing DM (type 2 diabetes) later in life
  • difficult delivery
  • low blood glucose levels after delivery

Risk factors for developing GDM

  • overweight/obese
  • over 25
  • family history
  • being hispanic, af amer, nat amer
  • history of GDM or previously large baby

12

pregnancy induced hypertension

(gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia)

includes:

  • Gestational hypertension
  • preeclampsia
    • high BP w/ severe edema and protein in urine
    • no cure, medical monitoring
    • if severe, bed rest is required
    • can reduce blood blow to fetus. risk of SGA infant
  • eclampsia
    • seizures in mother
    • major cause of death in preggo women

most common in women who:

  • diagnosed w/ HTN before preg
  • diagnosed w/ kidney disease before preg
  • under 18 or over 35
  • low income mamas
  • may be due to low calcium. some supplementation may be needed for women

13

Milk production and let down (prolactin, oxytocin)

prolactin: triggers production of milk in breast

oxytocin: causes milk to be let down

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energy, water, essential FA needs for lactating women

first 6 months

  • extra 500 calories needed
  • 170 come from fat stores
  • 330 come from diet?

during 2nd six months

  • 400 calories/day from food

protein

  • increased by 25g/day above DRI

fluid

  • mom needs additional liter of water/day
  • avoid alcohol and drugs, limit caffeine, careful with meds

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shit that isnt incresed in pregnancy and lactation

dont increase

  • vit d
  • calcium

 increased

  • folate

 

iron needs are reduced during lactation.

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benefits of breast feeding

 

fluid produced after birth--> Colostrum (low in fat, high in immune factors)

~ 6 days after, breast milk is produced

  • high in lactose for calcium absorption 
  • more digestible form of protein (alpha lactalbumin)
  • iron, zinc loc, but readily absorbed by infant

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Calorie distribution infants get from milk VS recommended carorie distribution of adults

 

Infants

  • Carbs 40%---> mst comes from lactose
  • Fat 54%
  • protein 6%
  • also need sufficient DHA and omega 6 FA arachidonic acid

adults

  • carbs 45-65 %
  • fat 20-35% 
  • protein 10-35%

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