organic compounds ESSENTIAL in the diet to promote growth and maintenance
water soluble vitamins
- Thiamin (b1)
- Riboflavin (b2)
- Niacin (b3)
- ^not referred as B vits
- pantothenic acid
- vitamin B6
- folate (folic acid
- vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
fat soluble vitamins
neeed fat in the diet to be absorbed
need bile to be absorbed.
absorbed into LYMPH
store in liver and fatty tissues
consumed and Absorbed as inactive or vitamin precursor that must be converted into active form.
role of coenzymes in the function of enzymes
ALL B VITAMINS ARE COENZYMES
they bind to enzymes to promote their activity
carries e-, atoms or chemical groups that participate in the reaction
Antioxidants (and the vitamins that serve as them)
Antioxidants help neutralize/ stabalize reactive oxygen molecules (free radicals).
free radicals are lacking an electron so they steal from others and fuck em up
Vitamin C, E, and Selenium
Selenium E, C= SEC
Reference used to determine safe and apporiate level of dietary intake of vitamin
RDA or AI are used, but NOT both. some have a UL
Relationship w/ b6, folate, and b12 in metabolism of methianine. relationship of homocystine and <3 disease *
folate needed for snyth of DNA. not enough causes macrocytic anemia.
supplemental folic acid can prevent mactocytic anemia.
folate and b12 are CODEPENDENT to convert homocystine to methionine. if either is lacking, homocystine levels rise and increase risk of <3 disease.
vit b6 converts homocystine--> cystine
supplementation of b vitamins WILL NOT reduce risk of <3 disease
Beriberi vitamin deficiency
Too much/ little T H I A M I N
symptoms: fatigue, weakness, depression, poor coordination, PARALYSIS
wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (vit. deficiency)
A L C O H O L A B U S E
progressively damaging brain disorder
pellagra (vit. def.)
N I A C I N deficiency
Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death
Microcytic anemia (vit. def)
deficiency in Vitamin B6.
poor growth, skin lesions, poor immune systmem
has role w/ RBC synth
scurcy (vit def)
Vit C deficiency
swollen bleeding gums, rash, coiled arm hairs, wounds that wont heal
neural tube defects (spina bifida/anancephaly) vit def.
Inadequate intake of folate/folic acid before and during pregnancy
Spina bifida= incomplete development of spinal cord/ spine
anencephaly= incomplete development of brain, skull, scalp. babies die.
rickets/ osteomalacia (vit def)
Vit D deficiency
Rickets in children- bowing legs
Osteomalacia in adults- softening of bones
may progress in osteoperosis
too much= high calcium in blood and urine. can cause calclium deposits and fuck up kidneys and <3
Vitamin C and the common cold
will not reduce risk of catching common cold.
may reduce the DURATION of it.
supplements do not prevent cancer
those who benefit from vit. supplements
those on weight loss consuming less than 1600 kcal
those who do not drink milk or dairy shit
those w/ dark pigmentation
vegans and vegeratians
regulation of "dietary supplements" and labeling standards
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)
redfined the term "dietary supplement"
FDA does not regulate supplements
Current Good Manufactoring Practive (cGMP regulation)
makes manufactors test for purity, strength and composition
look for US Pharmacopeial label
non-weoody seed producing plant that dies at end of growing season
botanical- used for medicinal purposes
Fortified and enriched vitamins
Enriched vitamins are ADDED back into foods after being lost.
shit that is enriched:
thiamin, Niacin, Riboflavin, Folic acid, iron.
NOTE: magnesium is not added back in
adding shit to foods that WASNT in there naturally
ex. vit D in milk
- stomach. (some niacin absorbed here)
- gall baldder releases bile, emulsifies, helps absorb fat soluble vits
- pancreas secretes that help vits be released from foods
- Small intestine- fat souble are made to micelles and absorbed by simple diffusion. inside the mucosal cell they are packaged into chylomicrons and enter the lymph before heading over to the blood
- water soulble vits are absorbed from small intestine directly into the blood.
- vit b12 is absorbed in the lower portion of small intesine
- large intestine- bacteria synth small amounts of vits, some absorbed
First b vitamin discovered
coenzyme needed for breakdown of glucose to provide energy
needed for metabolism of other sugars, certain amino acids and synth of ribose
important in nerve function b/c gluce is nerve cell energy source. needed for synth of neurotransmitters
found in hella amounts in porkm lentils, trough. also good amount in grains (spaghetti, brown rice, white/ whole wheat bread) same amount in white and whole wheat
Riboflavin functions and having too much/little
forms 2 active coenzymes in reactions that make ATP from Carbs, Fat and Protein
converts vits to active form:
Folate, niacin, vi b6, vit k
Milk is excelled source of riboflavin. makes pee yellow
too much/ too little:
tissues have rapid turn over.
mucosal lining of mouth, tongue and eyes
Symptoms: injuries heal hella slow, lips crack and so do corners of the mouth, sensitive to light, skin flaking.
Niacin functions, unique, toxicity
coenzyme for energy metabolism
glucose and fat
SYNTH of CHOLESTEROL
maintaining health of skin cells and digest. systm
UNIQUE: CAN BE MADE FROM TRYPTOPHAN!
Toxicity: from too much supplementation.
symptoms: flushing, nausea, tingling of extremeties
L I V E R D A M A G E
decreases LDL and triglycerides, increases HDL.
Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death
Folate vs. folic acid
and functions of
Folate is whats naturally found in foods.
Folic Acid is what is synth from folate. Its fortified foods and supplements. its absorbed easier than folate.
Amino acid metabolism
Coenzme for DNA synth
important for Rapidly Dividing Cells (so pregnancy)
found in hella amounts in Lentils and grains
formation of abnornally large, immature RBCs
M A C R O C Y T I C A N E M I A
neural tube defects (spina bifida/ anancephaly)
can reduce risk of some cancers: colon, pancreatic, breast, ovarian
coenzyme for hella enzymes in Protein Metabolism to create nonessential mino acids and hemoglobin in RBCs.
breakdown of glycogen for glucose
conversion of tryptophan --> niacin
3 forms: pyriodoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine
active coenzyme: pyridxial phosphate
In B6, the amino acids go to methionice and when being broken down it makes HOMOCYSTINE which in high amounts can fuck your <3 up. then vit b6 converts to cystine
Found in meats in high amount. low amount in grains. is NOT enriched back in.
too much= nerve damage
too little= poor growth, skin lesions, shitty immune system
large, immature RBCs
Vitamin B12 deficeincy as well due to lack of Intrinsic factor. Pernicious anemia and Nerver damage
folate and b12 are codependent
The only water soluble vitamin stored in body in high amounts (like 2 yrs)
important for ATP production from fatty acids
amino acid and protein metabolism
HOMOCYSTINE to methionine conversion
high homocystine linked to <3 disease
Myelin coating of nerve cells
NOT FOUND IN PLANTS
found naturally only in animal products
b12 needs HCl to denature. Intrinsic factor to bind to protein. distal ileum to absorb it
- b12 bound to protein
- in stomach, Hcl and pesin help release of b12
- cells in stomach lining release I N T R I N S I C F A C T O R
- upper portion of small intestine (duodenum), IF bind to B12
- in ileum, b12, IF complex binds to receptors and allows absoprtipon.
- in colon, b12 is synth by mucroog but no absorbed
over time, ability to absorb b12 declines due to decrease of stomach acid production. people over 50 years old. supplements are now needed
Biotin function, unique, defeiciency
function: Coenzyme for
metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids
cooked eggs, liver, yogurt, nuts
SYNTH BY GUT BACTERIA IN GI
nausea, thin hair, rash, depression, lethargy
raw eggs have advin which binds to biotin and causes deficiency
Part of coenzyme A needed for
carbs, fatty acids and amino acid break down
mod of proteins
synth of neurotransmitters
all around foods, hella in meat, eggs, whole grains
Vitamin C and smokers
smokers need 35+ mg a day b/c smoking increased breakdown and elimination of vit c from da body
Vitamin C. (known as, fucntions)
assists w/ snyth of
Breaks down histamine
Acts as antioxidant
Regenerated Vit E
Supports immune system
Enchances IRON absoription in GI
causes nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea
symptoms: swollen, bleeding gums, rash
Fat soluble vitamins
Retinoids= preformed vit A
Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid
Carotenoids- shit in carrots.
carotenoids may func as antioxidants
Preformed vit A= animals
Provitamin A= Plants
hella preformed Vit A can cause
during preggo, can cause birth defects
converts retinol when needed
too much: hypercatonemia- orange hands
risk for smokeers. increases risk of cancer
Chronic vit A deficiency: XEROPTHALMIA. starts w/ night blindness.
permanent damange to cornea
#1 cause of preventable blindess in children. mostly in developing countires
vit A difeiciency due to insufficient intake of vit A, fat, protein, and Zinc
vit A metabolism linked w/ zinc.
if zinc low, vit a deficincey will happen
can be produced in skin by UV exposeure
natural sources: liver, oily fish, egg yolk
nervex, muscles, glands, bones
Vit D and PARATHYROID hromine regulate level of calcoum and phosphorus in foods
stimulated intestinal absorption
pulls calcium from bones
VIT D ACTIVATED IN KIDNEYS
may prevent cancer (breast, ovarian, colon, prostate)
can reduce risk of <3 disaese, autoimmune disease, diabetes
more vitamin D as aging accours. reduced ability to absorb
deficiency in children= rickets. in adults= osteomalacia
Aphpa-tocopherol is most active form
protects cell membranes
prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol
reduces blood clotting when in large dose
Is regenerated by Vit A so i can func as free radical
sunflower oil, seeds, almonds
too much= Hemorrhage
unique source: Synth by Intestinal bacteria *biotin*
comes in 2 forms:
Menaquionone (synth w/ biotin) and phylloquionone (found in plants)
important to bone health
synth of 4 blood clotting factors
sunflower oil, mustard greens, kiwi
people on blod thinners need to have consitent vit k intake
infants at risk cause they haz no immune systm.