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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (38):
1

define Vitamin

organic compounds ESSENTIAL in the diet to promote growth and maintenance

2

water soluble vitamins

B vitamins

  • Thiamin (b1)
  • Riboflavin (b2)
  • Niacin (b3)
  • ^not referred as B vits
  • biotin
  • pantothenic acid
  • vitamin B6
  • folate (folic acid
  • vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C 

3

fat soluble vitamins

Vitamins

A

D

E

K

"ADEK" 

neeed fat in the diet to be absorbed

need bile to be absorbed.

absorbed into LYMPH 

store in liver and fatty tissues

4

provitamin

consumed and Absorbed as inactive or vitamin precursor that must be converted into active form. 

5

role of coenzymes in the function of enzymes

ALL B VITAMINS ARE COENZYMES

they bind to enzymes to promote their activity

carries e-, atoms or chemical groups that participate in the reaction

6

Antioxidants (and the vitamins that serve as them)

Antioxidants help neutralize/ stabalize reactive oxygen molecules (free radicals).

free radicals are lacking an electron  so they steal from others and fuck em up 

 

Vitamin C, E, and Selenium 

Selenium E, C= SEC 

 

7

Reference used to determine safe and apporiate level of dietary intake of vitamin 

RDA or AI are used, but NOT both. some have a UL

 

8

Relationship w/ b6, folate, and b12 in metabolism of methianine. relationship of homocystine and <3 disease *

folate needed for snyth of DNA. not enough causes macrocytic anemia. 

supplemental folic acid can prevent mactocytic anemia.

folate and b12 are CODEPENDENT to convert homocystine to methionine. if either is lacking, homocystine levels rise and increase risk of <3 disease.

vit b6 converts homocystine--> cystine

 

supplementation of b vitamins WILL NOT reduce risk of <3 disease

9

Beriberi vitamin deficiency

Too much/ little  T H I A M I N 

symptoms: fatigue, weakness, depression, poor coordination, PARALYSIS

 

10

wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (vit. deficiency)

Associated with

 A L C O H O L   A B U S E 

progressively damaging brain disorder

11

pellagra (vit. def.)

N I A C I N deficiency

Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death

12

Microcytic anemia (vit. def)

deficiency in Vitamin B6.

poor growth, skin lesions, poor immune systmem 

has role w/ RBC synth 

13

scurcy (vit def)

Vit C deficiency

swollen bleeding gums, rash, coiled arm hairs, wounds that wont heal 

14

neural tube defects (spina bifida/anancephaly) vit def.

Inadequate intake of folate/folic acid before and during pregnancy 

Spina bifida= incomplete development of spinal cord/ spine

anencephaly= incomplete development of brain, skull, scalp. babies die.

15

rickets/ osteomalacia (vit def)

Vit D deficiency

Rickets in children- bowing legs

Osteomalacia in adults- softening of bones

may progress in osteoperosis 

 

too much= high calcium in blood and urine. can cause calclium deposits and fuck up kidneys and <3 

16

Vitamin C and the common cold

will not reduce risk of catching common cold.

may reduce the DURATION of it. 

supplements do not prevent cancer

17

those who benefit from vit. supplements

those on weight loss consuming less than 1600 kcal

dietratry restrictions

those who do not drink milk or dairy shit

those w/ dark pigmentation

cigaretter smokers

vegans and vegeratians

young women

pregnant women

 

18

regulation of "dietary supplements" and labeling standards

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)

redfined the term "dietary supplement"

 

FDA does not regulate supplements

 

Current Good Manufactoring Practive (cGMP regulation)

makes manufactors test for purity, strength and composition 

look for US Pharmacopeial label

 

19

herbal supplements

non-weoody seed producing plant that dies at end of growing season

 

botanical- used for medicinal purposes

 

20

Fortified and enriched vitamins

 

Enriched vitamins are ADDED back into foods after being lost.

shit that is enriched:

thiamin, Niacin, Riboflavin, Folic acid, iron.

NOTE: magnesium is not added back in

 

Fortification: 

adding shit to foods that WASNT in there naturally

ex. vit D in milk

21

absorbing vitamins

  1. mouth
  2. stomach. (some niacin absorbed here)
  3. gall baldder releases bile, emulsifies, helps absorb fat soluble vits
  4. pancreas secretes that help vits be released from foods
  5. Small intestine- fat souble are made to micelles and absorbed by simple diffusion. inside the mucosal cell they  are packaged into chylomicrons and enter the lymph before heading over to the blood
  6. water soulble vits are absorbed from small intestine directly into the blood.
  7. vit b12 is absorbed in the lower portion of small intesine
  8. large intestine- bacteria synth small amounts of vits, some absorbed 

22

Thiamin

First b vitamin discovered 

coenzyme needed for breakdown of glucose to provide energy 

needed for metabolism of other sugars, certain amino acids and synth of ribose

important in nerve function b/c gluce is nerve cell energy source. needed for synth of neurotransmitters 

 

found in hella amounts in porkm lentils, trough. also good amount in grains (spaghetti, brown rice, white/ whole wheat bread) same amount in white and whole wheat

23

Riboflavin functions and having too much/little

forms 2 active coenzymes in reactions that make ATP from Carbs, Fat and Protei

converts vits to active form:

Folate, niacin, vi b6, vit k 

Milk is excelled source of riboflavin. makes pee yellow

 

too much/ too little:

tissues have rapid turn over. 

mucosal lining of mouth, tongue and eyes

Symptoms: injuries heal hella slow, lips crack and so do corners of the mouth, sensitive to light, skin flaking. 

24

Niacin functions, unique, toxicity 

Functions:

coenzyme for energy metabolism

glucose and fat

SYNTH of CHOLESTEROL

maintaining health of skin cells and digest. systm

UNIQUE: CAN BE MADE FROM TRYPTOPHAN! 

Toxicity: from too much supplementation. 

symptoms: flushing, nausea, tingling of extremeties

L I V E R   D  A M A G E 

decreases LDL and triglycerides, increases HDL. 

Deficiency: 

Pellagra

Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death 

 

 

25

Folate vs. folic acid

and functions of

Folate is whats naturally found in foods.

Folic Acid is what is synth from folate. Its fortified foods and supplements. its absorbed easier than folate.

Functions:

Amino acid metabolism

Coenzme for DNA synth

important for Rapidly Dividing Cells (so pregnancy) 

found in hella amounts in Lentils and grains

Too much/little:

formation of abnornally large, immature RBCs

M A C R O C Y T I C   A N E M I  A

 

neural tube defects (spina bifida/ anancephaly)

can reduce risk of some cancers: colon, pancreatic, breast, ovarian 

26

Vitamin B6

coenzyme for hella enzymes in Protein Metabolism to create nonessential mino acids and hemoglobin in RBCs.

breakdown of glycogen for glucose

conversion of tryptophan --> niacin

3 forms: pyriodoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine

active coenzyme: pyridxial phosphate 

 

In B6, the amino acids go to methionice and when being broken down it makes HOMOCYSTINE which in high amounts can fuck your <3 up. then vit b6 converts to cystine

 

Found in meats in high amount. low amount in grains. is NOT enriched back in.

too much= nerve damage

too little= poor growth, skin lesions, shitty immune system 

MICROCYTIC ANEMIA 

 

 

27

Macrocytic anemia

 

Folate deficiency

large, immature RBCs 

 

Vitamin B12 deficeincy as well due to lack of Intrinsic factor. Pernicious anemia and  Nerver damage

 

folate and b12 are codependent 

28

Vitamin B12

The only water soluble vitamin stored in body in high amounts (like 2 yrs)

important for ATP production from fatty acids

amino acid and protein metabolism

 

HOMOCYSTINE to methionine conversion

high homocystine linked to <3 disease

Myelin coating of nerve cells

NOT FOUND IN PLANTS

found naturally only in animal products

29

B12 absorption

b12 needs HCl to denature. Intrinsic factor to bind to protein. distal ileum to absorb it 

  1. b12 bound to protein
  2. in stomach, Hcl and pesin help release of b12
  3. cells in stomach lining release  I N  T R I N S I C   F A C T O  R
  4. upper portion of small intestine (duodenum), IF bind to B12
  5. in ileum, b12, IF complex binds to receptors and allows absoprtipon. 
  6. in colon, b12 is synth by mucroog but no absorbed

over time, ability to absorb b12 declines due to decrease of stomach acid production. people over 50 years old. supplements are now needed 

30

Biotin function, unique, defeiciency

function: Coenzyme for

Glucose synth 

metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids

Sources:

cooked eggs, liver, yogurt, nuts

SYNTH BY GUT BACTERIA IN GI

 

deficiency:

nausea, thin hair, rash, depression, lethargy

raw eggs have advin which binds to biotin and causes deficiency 

31

Pantothenic Acid

 

Part of coenzyme A needed for 

carbs, fatty acids and amino acid break down

mod of proteins

synth of neurotransmitters

sources:

all around foods, hella in meat, eggs, whole grains

32

Vitamin C and smokers

 

smokers need 35+ mg a day b/c smoking increased breakdown and elimination of vit c from da body 

33

Vitamin C. (known as, fucntions)

Ascorbic acid

functions:

COLLAGEN SYNTH

assists w/ snyth of

hormones

neurotransmitters

carnitine

Breaks down histamine

Acts as antioxidant

Regenerated Vit E

Supports immune system

Enchances IRON absoription in GI 

Deficiency= SCURCY

causes nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea

symptoms: swollen, bleeding gums, rash

 

 

34

Fat soluble vitamins

need bil

35

Vitamin A

provitaminA: precursor

 

Retinoids= preformed vit A

Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid

Carotenoids- shit in carrots. 

Functions:

Cell differentation

EYE FUNCTION

carotenoids may func as antioxidants

Preformed vit A= animals

Provitamin A= Plants

 

hella preformed Vit A can cause

Liver damage

bone fracturing

during preggo, can cause birth defects

 

Provatim AL

converts retinol when needed

too much: hypercatonemia- orange hands

risk for smokeers. increases risk of cancer

 

Chronic vit A deficiency: XEROPTHALMIA. starts w/ night blindness. 

permanent damange to cornea

#1 cause of preventable blindess in children. mostly in developing countires

vit A difeiciency due to insufficient intake of vit A, fat, protein, and Zinc

vit A metabolism linked w/ zinc.

 if zinc low, vit a deficincey will happen

 

36

Vitamin D

SUNSHINE vitamin

can be produced in skin by UV exposeure

natural sources: liver, oily fish, egg yolk

functions:

nervex, muscles, glands, bones

Vit D and PARATHYROID hromine regulate level of calcoum and phosphorus in foods

stimulated intestinal absorption

pulls calcium from bones

 

VIT D ACTIVATED IN KIDNEYS

 

may prevent cancer (breast, ovarian, colon, prostate)

can reduce risk of <3 disaese, autoimmune disease, diabetes

more vitamin D as aging accours. reduced ability to absorb

 

deficiency in children= rickets. in adults= osteomalacia

37

Vitamin E

POWERFUL antioxidant

Aphpa-tocopherol is most active form

protects cell membranes

prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol 

reduces blood clotting when in large dose

Is regenerated by Vit A so i can func as free radical 

 

sunflower oil, seeds, almonds

 

too much= Hemorrhage 

38

Vitamin K

Klotting

unique source: Synth by Intestinal bacteria *biotin*

comes in 2 forms:

Menaquionone (synth w/ biotin)  and phylloquionone (found in plants)

 

important to bone health

BLOOD CLOTTING

synth of 4 blood clotting factors 

 

sunflower oil, mustard greens, kiwi 

people on blod thinners need to have consitent vit k intake 

infants at risk cause they haz no immune systm.