Ch # 11 : Gastroenterology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch # 11 : Gastroenterology Deck (76):
1

2 different names 4 the system responsible 4 digesting the food we eat and absorbing the nutrient molecules

Gastrointestinal system

Digestive system

2

Organs involved includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, rectum and anus

Accessory organs involved are the liver, gallbladder and pancreas

Gastrointestinal tract

3

The branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions affecting the lower GI tract

Includes organs between the esophagus and the rectum

Gastroenterology

4

A specialist that treats conditions including bleeding, cancer, infections, nutritional disorders, inflammatory disorders, diverticulosis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux and ulcers.

Gastroenterologist

5

3 suffixes meaning pertaining to

-al

-eal

-ic

6

2 suffixes meaning pain

-algia

-dynia

7

Suffix meaning protrusion

-cele

8

Suffix meaning surgical removal

-ectomy

9

Suffix meaning vomit

-emesis

10

Suffix meaning record

-gram

11

Suffix meaning the process of recording

-graphy

12

2 Suffixes meaning abnormal condition

-iasis

-osis

13

Suffix meaning inflammation

-itis

14

Suffix meaning 1 who studies

-logist

15

Suffix meaning study of

-logy

16

Suffix meaning tumor

-oma

17

Suffix meaning to surgically create an opening

-ostomy

18

Suffix meaning cutting in2

-otomy

19

Suffix meaning digestion

-pepsia

20

Suffix meaning eat or swallow

-phagia

21

Suffix meaning surgical repair

-plasty

22

Suffix meaning dropping

-ptosis

23

Suffix meaning instrument 4 viewing

-scope

24

Suffix meaning process of viewing

-scopy

25

Suffix meaning surgical crushing

-tripsy

26

Prefix meaning without

A-

27

Prefix meaning slow

Brady-

28

Prefix meaning painful or difficult

Dys-

29

Prefix meaning excessive

Hyper-

30

Prefix meaning many

Poly-

31

Combining form meaning anus

An/o

32

2 Combining forms meaning appendix

A small pouch attached 2 the cecum

Serves no known purpose

Appendic/o

Append/o

33

Combining form meaning bile or gall

A substance produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that aids in fat digestion

Transported to the duodenum by the common bile duct




Chol/e

34

Combining form meaning bile ducts

A series of ducts that transports bile between the liver, gallbladder and the duodenum


Cholangi/o

35

Combining form meaning gallbladder

Stores bile produced by the liver


Cholecyst/o

36

Combining form meaning common bile duct

The main duct that transports bile from the liver or gallbladder 2 the duodenum


Choledoch/o

37

2 Combining forms meaning colon

Receives undigested food from the intestine

Allows water 2 be reabsorbed in2 the body and what remains is feces

Is divided in2 the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and the sigmoid colon




Col/o

Colon/o

38

Term that includes the cecum, appendix, colon, rectum and anus

Large intestine

39

Combining form meaning diverticulum

Small abnormal pouch that forms off the intestinal or colon wall

Can become inflamed or infected

Diverticul/o

40

Combining form meaning duodenum

1st section of the intestine

Recieves food from the stomach, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver

Begins final digestion and absorption of nutrients

Duoden/o

41

Combining form meaning intestine

Recieves food from the stomach, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver

Where asorbtion of nutrients begins

Includes duodenum, jejunum and ileum

Enter/o

42

Combining form meaning esophagus

A muscular tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach

Esophag/o

43

Combining form meaning stomach

A muscular sac producing hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes

Begins the digestive process by mixing food received from the esophagus w/acid called chime then leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum

Gastr/o

44

Combining form meaning liver

A complex organ that aids in fat digestion by producing bile

Hepat/o

45

Combining form meaning ileum

3rd section of the intestine

Receives food from the jejunum and completes process of digestion and nutrient absorption

Ile/o

46

Combining form meaning abdomen

A body cavity that houses organs of digestion, reproduction and excretion

Lapar/o

47

Combining form meaning pancreas

An organ that produces digestive enzymes

Pancreatic duct carries enzymes 2 the duodenum where they aid in food digestion

Pancreat/o

48

Combining form meaning polyp

Small mushroom-shaped tumors that grow on the mucus membranes of the colon and extend in2 the lumen of the colon

Can become cancerous

Polyp/o

49

Combining form meaning both the rectum and anus

Proct/o

50

Combining form meaning rectum

Final segment of the colon

Recieves feces from the sigmoid colon and stores it prior 2 elimination

Rect/o

51

Combining form meaning sigmoid colon

An s-shaped area of the colon

Feces pass out of the sigmoid colon and in2 the rectum

Sigmoid/o

52

Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity

Ascites

53

2 different names 4 an X-ray examination of the intestine and the colon using barium as a contrast medium

Barium enema
(BE)

Lower GI series

54

Chronic liver disease

Cirrhosis

55

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) w/mucus membrane ulcers

Most often found in the ileum

Crohn disease

56

Acute intestinal condition w/pain, diarrhea and blood and mucus in the stools

Usually caused by bacterial or parasitic infection

Dysentery

57

Congenital lack of the connection between the esophagus and the stomach

Food cannot enter the stomach

Esophageal atresia

58

Varicose veins in the esophagus

Results in massive bleeding if ruptured

Esophageal varices

59

3 different names 4 a clinical lab test 4 the presence of small amounts of blood in the feces

Fecal occult blood test
(FOBT)

Hemocrit

Stool guaiac test

60

2 different names 4 a surgical treatment 4 obesity

Portion of the stomach is stapled off and bypassed so that it holds less food

Gastric bypass

Stomach stapling

61

Occurs when stomach acid backs up in2 the esophagus

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

(GERD)

62

Clinical lab test 4 the presence of bacteria known 2 cause gastric ulcers

Helicobacter pylori antibody test

63

Varicose veins in the rectum

Hemorrhoids

64

Obstruction of the intestine that occurs when muscular movements stop moving food or blockage prevents food from moving through the digestive tract

Ileus

65

Occurs when 1 section of the intestine slips or telescopes in2 another section of the intestine

Intussusception

66

2 different names 4 the disturbance in the normal functioning of the bowel characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea

Often associated w/stress

Irritable bowel syndrome
(IBS)

Spastic colon

67

Yellow-colored skin and whites of the eyes associated w/liver disease

Jaundice

68

Very dark, tarry stools due 2 the presence of blood

Melena

69

Feeling of the urge 2 vomit

Nausea

70

Clinical lab test 4 presence of parasites or their eggs in the feces

Ova and parasites

71

Crater-like erosion occurring on the mucus membrane of the lower esophagus, stomach and/or duodenum

Bleeding ulcer: when the ulcer eats in2 the blood vessel

Perforated ulcer: when the ulcer eats through the wall of the stomach allowing stomach acids 2 escape in2 the abdominal cavity

Peptic ulcer disease

(PUD)

72

Nutrient-complete solution given directly in2 the bloodstream when the individual cannot eat by the mouth

Total parenteral nutrition

(TPN)

73

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by the formation of ulcers on the mucus membrane of the colon

Ulcerative colitis

74

2 different names 4 a X-ray examination of the esophagus and the stomach using barium as the contrast medium

Upper gastrointestinal series

Barium swallow

75

Length of the bowel that becomes twisted around itself

Volvulus

76

Forceful return of stomach contents out of the mouth

Vomit