Ch # 14 : Neurology Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Ch # 14 : Neurology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch # 14 : Neurology Deck (79):
1

5 Suffixes meaning pertaining to

-al
-ar
-ary
-eal
-ic
-ine

2

Receives info and then uses it 2 adjust the activity of muscles and glands 2 match the body's needs

Sensory receptors

3

What the nervous system consists of

Responsible 4 coordinating all the body's activity

Brain

Spinal chord

Nerves

4

1 of 2 parts that make up the nervous system

Consists of the brain and spinal chord

Central nervous system

(CNS)

5

1 of 2 parts that make up the nervous system

Consists of all of the nerves carrying electrical impulses 2 the body's organs

Peripheral nervous system

(PNS)

6

The structures of the nervous system

Conducts electrical impulses necessary 2 carry info between CNS and the body

Neurons

7

The point where 1 neuron meets another neuron

Message cannot transmit across the gap between neurons

Synapse

8

The gap between 2 neurons

Synaptic gap

9

Chemical messenger

Neurotransmitter

10

An insulating substance that helps neurons conduct electrical impulses faster

Myelin sheath

11

The branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the nervous system

Includes: brain, spinal chord and nerves

Neurology

12

Treats muscle conditions caused by the nervous system

Neurologist

13

A speciality 4 surgical procedures in treating nervous system conditions

Neurosurgery

14

Suffix meaning pain

-algia

15

Suffix meaning weakness

-asthenia

16

Suffix meaning hernia or protrusion

-cele

17

Suffix meaning surgical removal

-ectomy

18

Suffix meaning feeling or sensation

-esthesia

19

Suffix meaning record

-gram

20

Suffix meaning process of recording

-graphy

21

Suffix meaning inflammation

-itis

22

Suffix meaning 1 who studies

-logist

23

Suffix meaning softening

-malacia

24

Suffix meaning tumor

-oma

25

Suffix meaning abnormal condition

-osis

26

Suffix meaning cutting in2

-otomy

27

Suffix meaning disease

-pathy

28

Suffix meaning speech

-phasia

29

Suffix meaning surgical repair

-plasty

30

Suffix meaning paralysis

-plegia

31

Suffix meaning suture

-rrhaphy

32

Suffix meaning harding

-sclerosis

33

Suffix meaning development

-trophic

34

2 Prefixes meaning w/out

A-

An-

35

Prefix meaning against

Anti-

36

Prefix meaning 2

Di-

37

Prefix meaning painful or difficult

Dys-

38

Prefix meaning half

Hemi-

39

Prefix meaning excessive

Hyper-

40

Prefix meaning 1

Mono-

41

Prefix meaning many

Poly-

42

Prefix meaning 4

Quadri-

43

Prefix meaning under

Sub-

44

Combining form meaning cerebellum

2nd largest part of the brain

Coordinates movement and maintains balence

Cerebell/o

45

Combining form meaning cerebrum

Largest part of the brain

Recieves sensory info and sends motor control commands

Responsible 4 memory, problem solving and language

Divided in2 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital

Cerebr/o

46

Combining form meaning brain

1 of the largest organs in the body

Coordinates most the body's activites

4 sections: cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus and brain stem

Encephal/o

47

Combining form meaning medulla oblongata

Part of the brain stem

Connects rest of the brain 2 the spinal chord

Contains controls for vitals: respiration, heart rate, temperature and blood pressure

Medull/o

48

Combining form meaning meninges

A 3 layer protective sac around the brain and spinal chord

Outer layer: dura matter
Middle layer: arachnoid layer
Inner layer: pia matter

Mening/o

49

Combining form meaning spinal chord

A colum of nervous tissue providing a path 4 messages traveling 2 and from the brain

Myel/o

50

Combining form meaning nerve

A chord-like bundle of neurons carrying messages between the CNS and the muscles and organs of the body

Neur/o

51

Combining form meaning pons

Part of the brain stem that connects the cerebellum 2 the rest of the brain

Pont/o

52

Combining form meaning thalamus

Part of the brain that relays incomming sensory info 2 the correct part of the cerebrum

Thalam/o

53

Chronic brain condition involving progressive disorientation, speech and gait disturbances and loss of memory

Alzheimer disease

54

2 different names 4 a diease w/muscular weakness and atrophy due 2 degeneration of mortar neurons of the spinal cord

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(ALS)

Lou Gehrig disease

55

Medication 2 reduce excitability of neurons and 2 prevent uncontrolled neuron activity associated w/seizures

Anticonvulsant

56

Intracranial mass, either benign or malignant

Benign can still be fatal because it will grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue

Brain tumor

57

Bruising of the brain from impact

Systems last longer than 24 hours and include unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size and shock

Cerebral contusion

58

Non-progressive brain damage resulting from a defect in fetal development or trauma or oxygen deprivation at the time of birth

Cerebral palsy

(CP)

59

Laboratory examination of clear, watery, colorless fluid from w/in the brain and spinal chord

Detects infections or bleeding in the brain

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis

60

2 different names 4 the development of brain infarct due 2 loss of the blood supply 2 the brain

Can be caused by a ruptures blood vessel (hemorrhage), floating clot (embolus), stationary clot (thrombus) or compression

Extent of damage depends on size and location of the infarct and can include dysphasia and hemiplegia

Cerebrovascular accident
(CVA)

Stroke

61

Profound unconsciousness or stupor resulting from illness or injury

Coma

62

Injury 2 the brain when the brain is shaken inside the skull because of impact

Systems last 24 hours or less and can include dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size and shock

Concussion

63

Progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes w/preforming activities of daily life

Dementia

64

Recurrent disorder of the brain

Seizures and loss of consciousness as a result of uncontrolled neuron electrical activity

Epilepsy

65

Build-up of cerebrospinal fluid w/in the brain and if it's congenial it causes enlargement of the head

Treated by creating shunt from the brain 2 the abdomen 2 drain excess fluid

Hydrocephalus

66

3 different names 4 the puncture w/a needle in2 the lumbar vertebral area 2 w/draw fluid 4 examination or 4 the injection of medicine

Location of puncture is usually between the 4th and 5th vertebrae

Lumbar puncture
(LP)

Spinal tap

Spinal puncture

67

Specific type of headache characterized by severe head pain, sensitivity 2 light, dizziness and nausea

Migraine

68

Inflammatory autoimmune disease of the CNS

Immune system damages the myelin around the nerves and results in extreme weakness and numbness

Multiple sclerosis

(MS)

69

Autoimmune disease w/severe muscular weakness and fatigue due 2 difficulty of the electrical impulse passing across the synapse from 1 nerve 2 the next

Myasthenia gravis

70

Temporary or permanent loss of muscle function and movement

Paralysis

71

Chronic disorder of the nervous system/fine tremors, muscle weakness, rigidity and shuffling gait

Parkinson disease

72

Use of positive radionuclides 2 reconstruct brain sections

Measurement of oxygen and glucose uptake, cerebral blood flow and blood volume can be taken

Amount of glucose the brain uses indicates metabolic activity

Positron emission tomography

(PET)

73

Sudden uncontrollable onset of symptoms

Appears as a loss of awareness and absence of activity

Systems can include muscle convulsions

Seizures

74

2 different names 4 the eruption of painful blisters on the body along the nerve path

Thought 2 b caused by Varicella zoster virus infection of the nerve root

Shingles

Herpes zoster

75

Congenial defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which 2 sides of vertebra do not meet or close

Can result in meningocele or myelomeningole

Spina bifida

76

Damage 2 the spinal cord as a result of trauma

Spinal cord can be bruised or completely severed

Spinal cord injury

(SCI)

77

Mass of blood forming underneath dura matter when meninges are torn by trauma

Can excerpt fatal pressure on brain if hematomais not drained by surgery

Subdermal hematoma

78

Fainting

Syncope

79

Temporary reduction of the blood supply 2 the brain

Causes various symptoms ex. syncope, numbness and hemiplegia

Can eventually lead 2 cerebrovascular accident

Transient ischemic attack

(TIA)