Ch # 15: Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Ch # 15: Endocrinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch # 15: Endocrinology Deck (69):
1

Maintains homostasis

Includes: 2 adrenal glands, 2 ovaries/testes, 4 parathyroid glands, the pancreas, the pineal gland, the pitutary gland, thymus gland & the thyroid gland

Endocrine system

2

Stable internal body environment

Homostasis

3

chemical messengers

Horomones

4

4 Suffixes meaning pertaining 2

-al
-an
-ar
-ic

5

Suffix meaning puncture 2 w/draw fluid

-centesis

6

Suffix meaning cell

-cyte

7

Suffix meaning thirst

-dipsia

8

Suffix meaning surgical removal

-ectomy

9

Suffix meaning swelling

-edema

10

Suffix meaning blood condition

-emia

11

Suffix meaning state of or condition

-ism

12

Suffix meaning inflammation

-itis

13

Suffix meaning 1 who studies

-logist

14

Suffix meaning study of

-logy

15

Suffix meaning softening

-malacia

16

Suffix meaning enlarged

-megaly

17

Suffix meaning resembling

-old

18

Suffix meaning tumor

-oma

19

Suffix meaning abnormal condition

-osis

20

Suffix meaning cutting in2

-otomy

21

Suffix meaning disease

-pathy

22

Suffix meaning surgical fixation

-pexy

23

Suffix meaning surgical repair

-plasty

24

Suffix meaning rupture

-rrhexis

25

Suffix meaning urine condition

-uria

26

Prefix meaning w/in

Endo-

27

Prefix meaning outward

Ex-

28

Prefix meaning excessive

Hyper-

29

Prefix meaning insufficient

Hypo-

30

Prefix meaning many or much

-poly

31

Combining form meaning gland

A group of cells that work 2gether 2 produce and secrete substances like hormones

Aden/o

32

2 Combining forms meaning adreanal gland

2 adreanal glands sit on top of each kidney

2 sections: outer- adrenal cortex; secretes aldosterone,cortisol,
estrogen/testosterone
Inner- adrenal medulla; secretes epinephrine/
adrenaline

Adren/o

Adrenal/o



33

Combining form meaning 2 secrete

Refers 2 glands releasing substances like horomones

Crin/o

34

2 Combining forms meaning sugar but referring 2 glucose

Glucose is the primary sugar used by the body 4 energy production

Glyc/o

Glycos/os

35

Combining form meaning ovary

Pair of almond-shaped organs in the female pelvic cavity

Releases ova 4 reproduction & estrogen 2 regulate menstrual cycle

Oophor/o

Ovari/o

36

2 Combining forms meaning testes

Pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum

Releases sperm 4 reproduction & testosterone

Orchi/o

Testicul/o

37

Combining form meaning pancreas

Located in the abdominal cavity along the lower curvature of the stomach

Secretes insulin & glucagon 2 regulate blood sugar levels

Insulin: raises blood sugar
Glucagon: lowers blood sugar

Pancreat/o

38

Combining form meaning parathyroid gland

4 small glands located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

Secretes parathyroid hormone 2 raise levels of calcium in blood

Parathyroid/o

39

Combining form meaning pineal gland

Small pine coned-shaped gland in the thymus region of the brain

Secreates melatonin which regulates circadian rhythm

Pineal/o

40

Combining form meaning pituitary gland

Small marble-shaped gland that hangs down from the underside of the brain

"Master Gland" because it regulates other endocrine glands

Divided in2: Anterior lobe: secretes growth hormone, thyroid-
stimulating hormone, prolactin,
adrenocorticotropin hormone ect...
Posterior lobe: antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin

Pituitar/o

41

Combining form meaning thymus gland

Located in the mediastinum of the chest, behind the sternum & above the heart

Secretes: thymosin- important 4 immune system develpoment

Thym/o

42

2 Combining forms meaning thyroid gland

Located in the neck w/2 lobes on either side of the trachea

Secretes: thyroxine & triiodothyronine- both regulate metabolism
Calcitonin- 2 lower blood calcium levels

Thyr/o

Thyroid/o

43

A chronic condition developing in adults w/excessive growth hormone

Results in elongation or enlargement of the bones of the head or extremites

Acromegaly

44

The development of secondary sexual characteristics in a male as a result of increased estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex

Adrenal feminization

45

The development of secondary sexual characteristics in a female as a result of increased androgen secreation by the adrenal cortex

Adrenal virilism

46

A blood 2 measure the level of substances in the bloodstream

Used 2 study function of the endocrine glands

Blood serum test

47

Hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that have strong anti-inflammatory action

Can be used 2 treat severe chronic inflammatory diseases

Corticosteroids

48

A congenial condition causing the lack of thyroid hormones

Results in poor physical and mental development

Creatinism

49

A condition resulting from hyperscretion of the adrenal cortex

Can b caused by an adrenal gland tumor

Symptoms include: weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration and osteoporosis

Crushing syndrome

50

A condition caused by an insufficient antidiuretic hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

Symptoms include: polyuria and polydipsia

Diabetes insipidus

(DI)

51

The chronic disorder of the sugar metabolism

Symptoms include: hyperglycemia and glycosuria

2 types: insulin dependent (type 1)
noninsulin dependent (type 2)

Diabetes mellitus

(DM)

52

Being excessively short in height

Can result from the lack of growth hormone

Dwarfism

53

A condition in which the eyeballs protrude

Commonly caused by the hypersecretion of thyroid hormones

Exophthalmos

54

A blood test that measures the amount of sugar in the bloodstream after a 12 hour fast

Fasting blood sugar

(FBS)

55

The excessive growth of the body due 2 hyperscreation of the growth hormone in a child or teenager

Gigantism

56

Test for the initial diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

The patient is given a dose of glucose then blood samples r taken at regular intervals 2 determine the patients ability 2 use glucose properly

Glucose tolerance test

(GTT)

57

The enlargement of the thyroid gland

Goiter

58

A condition resulting from the hypersecretion of thyroid hormones

Symptoms include: exophthalmus and goiter

Graves disease

59

A chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis

Results in the hypersecreation of thyroid hormones

Hashimoto disease

60

The artificial replacement of hormones in patients w/hyposecretion disorders

Hormone replacement therepy

61

2 names 4 a type of diabetes that tends 2 develop early in life when the pancreas stops producing insulin

Can b an autoimmune disease

Patient must take insulin injections

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
(IDDM)

Type 1 diabetes

62

a condition resulting from hyposecretion of thyroid hormones in an adult

symptoms include: anemia, slow speech, swollen facial features, puffy and dry skin, drowsiness and mental sluggishness

Myxedema

63

2 names 4 a type of diabetes that typically develops late in life

The pancreas produces normal 2 high levels of insulin but cells fail 2 respond

Patients take medication 2 improve insulin function

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes

64

Usually a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla

Secretes excessive amounts of epinephrine

Symptoms include: anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, hypertension, profuse sweating, headache and nausea

Pheochromocytoma

65

A test 4 thyroid function that measures how much radioactivity tagged iodine is removed from the bloodstream by the thyroid gland

Radioactive iodine uptake

(RAIU)

66

A test 2 measure the levels of plasma in the blood

Radioimmunoassay

(RIA)

67

Both nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia

Hypoparathyroidism is 1 cause

Tetany

68

A blood test 2 measure the levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone in the bloodstream 2 evaluate thyroid functioning

Thyroid scan

69

Condition resulting from extreme hypersecretion of thyroid hormones

Symptoms include: rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos and weight loss

Thyrotoxicosis