CH # 16: Opthalmology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH # 16: Opthalmology Deck (93):
1

A sense organ that is responsible 4 vision

Light rays enter and travel through the cornea, pupil, iris, lens and land on the retina 2 produce an image which is then sent 2 the brain via the optic nerve

Accessory organs provide protection and include the conjunctiva, eyelids and lacrimal glands

Eyeballs

2

The diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the eye and vision

Ophthalmology

3

Medical doctors who have completed at least 4 years of specialized training after completing medical school

They do vision examinations, corrective lens prescription, diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases and condition and eye surgery

Ophthalmologists

4

Obtains a doctor of optometry degree after completing 4 years at a school of optometry

Optometrist

5

Specializes in assessing vision and prescribing corrective lens, treating glaucoma, corneal damage, visual skill problems, providing both pre and post surgical care and screens 4 other eye diseases

Optometry

6

5 Suffixes meaning pertaining 2

-a -ic

-ar -ous

-ary

7

Suffix meaning surgical removal

-ectomy

8

Suffix meaning process of recording

-graphy

9

Suffix meaning state or condition

-ia

10

Suffix meaning specialist

-ician

11

Suffix meaning inflammation

-itis

12

Suffix meaning stone

-lith

13

Suffix meaning 1 who studies

-logist

14

Suffix meaning the study of

-logy

15

Suffix meaning destruction

-lysis

16

Suffix meaning softening

-malacia

17

Suffix meaning an instrument 2 measure

-meter

18

Suffix meaning the process of measuring

-metry

19

Suffix meaning vision

-opia

20

Suffix meaning abnormal condition

-osis

21

Suffix meaning cutting in2

-otomy

22

Suffix meaning disease

-pathy

23

Suffix meaning surgical fixation

-pexy

24

Suffix meaning fear

-phobia

25

Suffix meaning surgical repair

-plasty

26

Suffix meaning paralysis

-plegia

27

Suffix meaning drooping

-ptosis

28

Suffix meaning flow

-rrhea

29

Suffix meaning hardening

-sclerosis

30

Suffix meaning an instrument 2 view

-scope

31

Suffix meaning the process of viewing

-scopy

32

2 Prefixes meaning w/out

A-

An-

33

Prefix meaning half

Hemi-

34

Prefix meaning excessive

Hyper-

35

Prefix meaning w/in

Intra-

36

Prefix meaning small

Micro-

37

Combining form meaning water

The anterior areas of the lens that r filled w/a watery fluid called aqueous humor

Aque/o

38

Combining form meaning eyelid

Both upper and lower folds of skin that close 2 protect the anterior surface of the eyeball

Blephar/o

39

Name 4 eyelashes

Cilia

40

Combining form meaning choroid layer

The middle layer of the wall of the eyeball

Contains many blood vessels

Choroid/o

41

Combining form meaning conjunctiva

A mucus membrane that protects the anterior surface of the eyeball and turns underneath 2 line eyelids

Conjunctiv/o

42

2 Combining forms meaning pupil

The opening in the center of the iris

It becomes larger or smaller 2 control the amount of light that enters in2 the eyeball

Core/o

Pupill/o

43

Combining form meaning ciliary body

A ring of muscle around the outer edge of the lens

It's attached 2 the lens by suspensory ligaments

Cycl/o

44

It pulls on the edges of the lens 2 change its shape 2 focus the image on2 the retina

Suspensory ligaments

45

2 Combining forms meaning tear

The watery fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands that moisten and cleanse the anterior surface of the eyeball

Tears collect in the corner of the eye and flow through the lacrimal canals 2 the lacrimal sac

Dacry/o

Lacrim/o

46

The structures that r located superior and lateral 2 the eyeball and under the orbital bone

They create tears 2 protect and cleanse the eyeball

Lacrimal glands

47

2 Combining forms meaning iris

The colored portion of the eye

It's made of muscle and contracts or relaxes 2 change the size of the pupil

Ir/o

Irid/o

48

2 Combining forms meaning cornea

It's the anterior portion of the sclera

It's transparent 2 allow light through and curved 2 bend light rays so that they focus on the retina

Corne/o


Kerat/o

49

2 Combining forms meaning eye

It's a complex sensory organ that allows us 2 c

It's hollow but it's not an empty sphere

Wall of the eye has 3 layers: sclera, choroid and the retina

Ocul/o

Ophthalm/o

50

Combining form meaning vision

Opt/o

51

Combining form meaning lens

It's a transparent structure lying behind the iris and the pupil

It bends the light rays as they pass through so that it may be focused on the retina

Phac/o

52

Combining form meaning retina

The inner layer of the eyeball

Contains light receptors called rods and cones

Retin/o

53

A type of light receptor w/in the retina

They function in dim light and c in grey tones

Rods

54

A type of light receptor w/in the retina

They c color in bright light

Cones

55

Located on the posterior wall of the eyeball directly opposite of the lens

Has a small pit in it's center called the fovea centralis

Macula lutea

56

It's a small pit w/in the macula lutea

It contains only cones and is the point of clearest vision

Fovea centralis

57

Combining form meaning sclera or "white of the eye"

The outermost layer of the eye

It's very fibrous and tough

Scler/o

58

Combining form meaning tension or pressure

Ton/o

59

Combining form meaning glassy

It refers 2 the gel like shiny substance called the vitreous humor that fills the large open cavity between the lens and the retina

Vitre/o

60

The ability of the eye 2 adjust 2 variations in distance

Accommodation

(Acc)

61

2 names 4 the inability 2 c in color since birth

Achromatopsia

Color blindness

62

2 names 4 the loss of vision not due 2 a disease

It's not correctable w/glasses

The patient wears a patch over 1 eye 2 force the effected eye 2 work

Amblyopia

Lazy eye

63

The uneven bending of light rays that is caused by an irregular curvature of the cornea

Image appears fuzzy but it's correctable w/cylindrical lenses

Astigmatism

(As, Ast)

64

When the lens becomes cloudy or opaque

It results w/the whole vision field becoming blurry

Treatment is usually the surgical removal of it and is then replaced by a artificial lens

Cataract

65

The use of multi colored charts 2 determine the ability of the patient 2 recognize color

Color vision tests

66

The scraping away of the outer layer of the cornea

Corneal abrasion

67

The procedure 2 remove the lens w/the cataract useing an extremely cold probe

Cryoextraction

68

The development of small hemorrhages and edema w/in the retina as a result of diabetes mellitus

Laser surgery can b necessary 4 treatment

Diabetic retinopathy

69

The bright green flourscent dye that is dropped on2 the surface of the eyeball 2 highlight cornea abrasions

Fluorescein

70

A procedure using intravenous bright green dye 2 examine the movement of blood through the blood vessels of the eye

Fluorescein angiography

71

A condition resulting from an increase in intraocular pressure

If left untreated it will result in the atrophy of the optic nerve and blindness

The patient notices that the vision becomes blurry around the edges and is treated w/medication and surgery

Glaucoma

72

2 names 4 a visual condition in which the person can c things in the distance but has trouble reading material at close range

Correctable w/convex lenses

Hyperopia

Farsightedness

73

2 replace the natural lens w/an artificial lens following cataract extraction

Intraocular lens (IOL) implant

74

The correction of myopia using laser surgery 2 remove minute slices of corneal tissue

Laser-assisted in-situ ker-atomileusis

(LASIK)

75

Using a laser 2 make pinpoint scars 2 stabilize a detached or torn retina

Laser retina photocoagulation

76

The deterioration of the macula Luna of the retina

The patient will notice a loss of vision in the center of their visual feild

Macular degeneration

77

2 names 4 a visual condition in which a person can c things up close but distance vision is blurred

Myopia

Nearsightedness

78

2 names 4 having poor vision at night or in dim light

Nyctalopia

Night blindness

79

The jerky-appearing involuntary eye movement

Nystagmus

80

A health care professional that is trained 2 make corrective and fit eyeglasses and contact lenses

Optician

81

The use of high frequency sound waves 2 break up a cataract which is then removes by suction w/a needle

Phacoemulsification

82

Having the excessive sensitivity 2 light that leads 2 the avoidance of light

Not an actual phobia of light

Photophobia

83

The use of a laser 2 reshape the cornea 2 improve visual acuity

Photo-refractive keratectomy

(PRK)

84

A surgery w/spoke like incisions in the cornea 2 flatten it

It's done 2 correct nearsightedness

Radial keratotomy

(RK)

85

A defect in the ability of the eye 2 bend light rays 2 focus an image properly on the fovea centralis

It occurs in myopia and hyperopia

Refractive error

86

It occurs when the retina becomes seperated from the choroid layer

This separation damages blood vessels and nerves resulting in blindness

Retinal detachment

87

An instrument used in ophthalmology 4 examining the posterior surface of the cornea

Slit lamp microscope

88

A chart used 4 testing visual acuity

It contains letters of various sizes and is given at a distance of 20 feet

Normal is 20/20 vision

Snellen chart

89

2 names 4 the weakness of the external eye muscle

It results w/both eyes looking in different directions at the same time

It can b corrected w/glasses, eye exercises and/or surgery

Strabismus

Cross eyed

90

The incision in2 the eye muscles 2 correct strabismus

Strabotomy

91

2 names 4 a small prurient infection of the sebaceous gland of the eye that is treated w/hot compresses and surgical incision

Stye

Hordeolum

92

The measurement of the sharpness of a patient's vision

Snellen chart is usually used 4 this test and normal is 20/20 vision



Visual acuity test

(VA)

93

The number 4 a person who is able 2 c at 20 feet away that a normal person c's at 20 feet away

-AND-

The number 4 a person who c's at 20 feet away but a normal person c's at 200 feet away

20/20

20/200