Ch # 10: Pulmonology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch # 10: Pulmonology Deck (98):
1

Diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions affecting the lower respiratory system and chest cavity including the trachea, bronchi, lungs and pleura

Pulmonology

2

Treat conditions including cancer, infections, obstructive lung diseases, injuries, respiratory failure, Enviromental and occupational lung diseases and disorders of the pleura

Pulmonologist

3

Performs surgical treatment of the lung and thoracic cavity conditions including lungs, trachea, esophagus, chest wall, heart and other structures in the heart

Thoracic surgeon

4

Administers oxygen therepy, measuring lung capacity, monatering blood concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide, administer breathing treatments and providing care 4 ventilator patients

Respiratory therapist

5

4 Suffixes meaning pertaining to

-al
-ar
-ary
-ic

6

2 Suffixes meaning pain

-algia

-dynia

7

Suffix meaning puncture 2 w/draw fluid

-centesis

8

Suffix meaning dilated or expansion

Ectasis

9

Suffix meaning surgical removal

-ectomy

10

Suffix meaning producing

Genic

11

Suffix meaning record

-gram

12

Suffix meaning instrument 4 recording

-graphy

13

Suffix meaning state of

-ia

14

Suffix meaning inflammation

-itis

15

Suffix meaning 1 who studies

-logist

16

Suffix meaning study of

-logy

17

Suffix meaning instrument 2 measure

-meter

18

Suffix meaning process of measuring

-metry

19

Suffix meaning small

-ole

20

Suffix meaning tumor

-oma

21

Suffix meaning abnormal condition

-osis

22

Suffix meaning create new opening

-ostomy

23

Suffix meaning cutting in2

-otomy

24

Suffix meaning oxygen

-oxia

25

Suffix meaning surgical repair

-plasty

26

Suffix meaning breathing

-pnea

27

Suffix meaning spitting

-ptysis

28

Suffix meaning instrument 4 viewing

-scope

29

Suffix meaning process of visual examining

-scopy

30

Suffix meaning involuntary strong muscle contraction

-spasm

31

Suffix meaning chest

-thorax

32

2 Prefixes meaning w/out

A-

An-

33

Prefix meaning slow

Brady-

34

Prefix meaning abnormal or labored

Dys-

35

Prefix meaning w/in

Endo-

36

Prefix meaning normal

Eu-

37

Prefix meaning excessive

Hyper-

38

Prefix meaning insufficient

Hypo-

39

Prefix meaning fast

Tachy-

40

Combining form meaning alveolus

Thin-walled air sacs at the end of bronchioles

Exchange of oxygen takes place between air in alveoli & capillary blood supply around them

Alveol/o

41

2 Combining forms meaning bronchus

The 2 main divisions of trachea that carry in2 each lung

They subdivide in2 more narrow bronchi & eventually become the narrowest bronchioles

Bronchi/o

Bronch/o

42

Combining form meaning bronchioles

They r the narrowest air way tubes

Carries air from bronchi 2 aveoli

Bronchiol/o

43

Combining form meaning dust

Coni/o

44

Combining form meaning blue

Cyan/o

45

Combining form meaning lobe

Each lung is subdivided in2 lobes

Right has 3 lobes
Left has 2 lobes

Lob/o

46

Combining form meaning mediastinum

The central region of the thoracic cavity between the lungs

Contains: trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, lymph nodes & thymus gland

Mediastin/o

47

Combining form meaning straight

Orth/o

48

Combining form meaning oxygen

Required by every cell of the body 4 its metabolism

Main function of the lungs is 2 inhale oxygen

Ox/i

49

Combining form meaning pleura

A double layered membrane that forms a protective sac around the lungs

Outer layer: parietal
Inner layer: visceral

The area covered w/folded pleura is called pleural cavity

Pleur/o

50

Combining form meaning lung or air

Paired organs found in the thoracic cavity

Each consist of tubelike airways that carry air 2 & from aveoli or air sacs

Gas exchange between outside air & the bloodstream takes place in the aveoli

Pneum/o

51

2 Combining forms meaning lung

Pneumon/o

Pulmon/o

52

Combining form meaning breathing

Spir/o

53

Combining form meaning chest

Thorac/o

54

Combining form meaning trachea

The tube that carries air from the thrust down in2 the chest cavity

Splits in2 2 main bronchi : aka windpipe

Trache/o

55

Acute respiratory failure in adults characterized by tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia and hypoxia

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

(ARDS)

56

A laboratory test for the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

Arterial blood gases

(ABG's)

57

2 names 4 a lack of oxygen that can lead 2 unconsciousness and death if not corrected immediately

Common causes: drowning, a foreign body in the respiratory tract, poisoning and electric shock

Asphyxia

Asphyxiation

58

Inhaling fluid or a foreign object in2 the airways

Aspirate

59

A disease caused by various conditions like allergies resulting in bronchospasm, excessive mucus production, inflammation, airway constriction, wheezing and coughing

Asthma

60

A condition in which the lung tissue collapses preventing respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Atelectasis

61

Any medication that causes the bronchi 2 dilate

Bronchodilator

62

A malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi

Associated w/cigarette smoking

Bronchogenic carcinoma

63

A combination of external compressions on the sternum and mouth breathing 2 maintain blood flow and air movement in and out of the lungs during cardiac and respiratory arrest

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

(CPR)

64

2 names 4 a progressive, chronic and irreversible condition in which the air flow 2 and from the lungs is decreased

Patient can have severe dyspnea w/exertion and cough

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD)

Chronic obstructive lung disease
(COLD)

65

An acute viral infection in infants and children

Symptoms include dyspnea and a characteristic barking cough

Croup

66

A genetic condition that causes a patient 2 produce very thick mucus resulting in severe congestion w/in the lungs and the digestive system

Cystic fibrosis

(CF)

67

A pulmonary condition resulting from destruction of alveolar walls leading 2 overinflated aveoli

Can occur as a result of long-term smoking or exposure 2 air pollution

Characterized by dyspnea on exertion

Emphysema

68

Placing a tube through the mouth and in2 the trachea 2 maintain an open airway and facilitate artificial ventilation

Endotracheal intubation

(ET)

69

2 breath 2 quickly (tachypnea) and 2 deeply (hypopnea)

Hyperventilation

70

2 breath 2 slowly (bradypnea) and 2 shallowly (hypopnea)

Hypoventilation

71

Having an insufficient amount of oxygen in the body

Hypoxia

72

A condition seen in premature infants whose lungs have not had time 2 fully develop

Lungs rn't able 2 expand fully causing extreme difficultly w/breathing and can result in death

Infant respiratory distress syndrome

(IRDS)

73

An acute viral infection of the airways

Usually highly contagious

Symptoms include chills, fever, body aches and a dry cough

Influenza

(Flu)

74

A method of artificial ventilation using a mask connected 2 a machine that produces pressure 2 assist air 2 fill the lungs

Intermittent positive pressure breathing

(IPPB)

75

A thick mucus secreated by the mucus membrane lining of the respiratory tract

When its coughed through the mouth its called sputum

Phlegm

76

The abnormal presence of fluid or gas in the pleural cavity

Its presence can be detected by tapping the chest (percussion) or listening w/a stethoscope (auscultation)

Pleural effusion

77

Inflammation of the pleura

Pleurisy

78

An acute inflammatory condition of the lungs which can be caused by bacterial and viral infections, diseases and chemicals

Severe dyspnea and death can result when the aveoli fill w/fluid (pulmonary infiltrate)

Pneumonia

79

The collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity which can result w/a collapsed lung

Pneumothorax

80

The drainage of secretions from the bronchi by placing a patient in a position that uses gravity 2 promote drainage

Used 4 treatment of cystic fibrous and bronchiectasis

Postural drainage

81

Injecting dye in2 a blood vessel 4 the purpose of taking an x-ray of the arteries and veins in the lungs

Is a test 4 pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary angiography

82

A condition in which the lung tissue retains excessive amount of fluid

Results in dyspnea

Pulmonary edema

83

A blood clot or air bubble in the pulmonary artery or 1 of its branches

Results in the infarct of lung tissue

Pulmonary embolism

(PE)

84

A diagnostic procedure 2 access respiratory function by using a spirometer 2 measure the air flow and lung volumes

Often performed by respiratory therapists

Pulmonary function test

(PFT)

85

Containing pus

Purulent

86

An abnormal "crackling" sound made during inhalation

Caused by mucus or fluid in the airways

Rales

87

The number of breaths per minute: rpm

1 of the vital signs

Respiratory rate

(RR)

88

2 names 4 a whistling sound that can be heard during either inhalation or exhalation

Caused by the narrowing of the bronchi

Rhonchi

Wheezing

89

A severe and highly contagious viral lung infection w/high fever

Threatened a worldwide epidemic in 2003

Severe acute respiratory syndrome

(SARS)

90

Mucus or phlegm coughed up or spit out from the respiratory tract

Sputum

91

Testing sputum by placing it on a culture medium and observing any bacterial growth

Specimen used 2 detect best and most effective antibiotics 2 use

Sputum culture and sensitivity test

(Sputum C and S)

92

The examination of the sputum 4 malignant cells

Sputum cytology

93

An unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant

Sleep apnea, airway spasms, and the failure of nerves 2 stimulate the diaphragm have been studied as possible causes

Sudden infant death syndrome

(SIDS)

94

The diagnostic test 4 cystic fibrosis

Children w/this disease lose excessive amount of salt in their sweat

Sweat test

95

A diagnostic test 4 exposure 2 tuberculosis bacteria by applying a chemical agent under the surface of the skin and then evaluating the site 4 a reaction

Tuberculin skin tests

(TB test)

96

An infectious disease caused by tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Most commonly effects the respiratory system and causes inflammation and calcification in the lungs

Tuberculosis

(TB)

97

A nuclear medicine immage particularly useful in diagnosing a pulmonary emboli

Involves inhalation of radioactive tagged air 2 evaluate air movement and injection of a radioactive tagged dye in2 the blood stream 2 evaluate blood flow 2 the lungs

Ventilation-perfusion scan

98

2 names 4 a mechanical device 2 assist a patient 2 breath

Ventilator

Respirator