Ch 24 Lec 1 - Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 24 Lec 1 - Respiratory System Deck (112):
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two parts of respiratory system

upper, lower

1

nose, nasal cavity, sinuses and pharynx make up this respiratory system

upper

2

larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli make up the blank

lower respiratory system

3

gas exchange surface

alveoli

4

lung is an extensive area for blank

gas exchange

5

respiratory produces blank

vocalization

6

respiratory system also helps with blank and blank

protection, regulation

7

increase the blank of the membrane to increase efficiency of membrane

surface area

8

decrease the blank of the membrane to increase efficiency of gas exchange

thickness

9

highly blank the respiratory membrane to maximize the concentration gradient to increase gas exchange efficiency

vascularize

10

gases exchange better with blank surfaces

moisture

11

two types of cartilage in nose

lateral nasal, major/minor alar

12

external nares are aka blank

nostrils

13

the nose encloses the nasal blank

vestibule

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nasal vestibule is protected by blank and open into blank

hairs, nasal cavity

15

inside of nose is the blank

nasal vestibule

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nasal vestibule is divided by blank

nasal septum

17

nasal cavity starts at nasal blank and ends at blank

vestibule, internal nares

18

nasal cavity is divided into two by the blank

nasal septum

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nasal cavity is separated from oral cavity by blank and blank

hard palate, soft palate

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hard palate is made of blank and blank

palatine, maxilla

21

nasal cavity has a blank membrane lining

mucus

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superior region of the nasal cavity with areas of olfactory receptors

olfactory region

23

part of nasal cavity with three projections of bone on each side

conchae

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ethmoid and inferior nasal concha bone make up the blank

conchae

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grooves in between conchae are called blank

meatuses

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conchae functions to blank out airborne particles

filter

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conchae divides nasal cavity into blank

passages

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conchae supports blank membranes

mucous

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conchae increase blank and blank

surface area, turbulence

30

air filled sacs within cranial bones

sinuses

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four sinuses

maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid

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sinuses open into blank cavity

nasal

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sinuses are lined with blank

mucous membranes

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sinus functions to decrease blank of skull

weight

35

sinuses produce blank

mucus

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throat is aka blank

pharynx

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shared passageway for respiratory and digestive system

pharynx

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pharynx above uvula and posterior to internal nares

nasopharynx

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function of pharynx is a blank for food and air and is for blank production

passage, sound

40

two layers of respiratory tree

mucosa, submucosa

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layer of respiratory tree that has goblet cells in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

mucosa

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layer of respiratory tree that has areolar connective tissue and serous and mucous glands

submucosa

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there is blank cartilage and blank muscle in the respiratory tree

hyaline, trachealis

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trachealis muscle is blank and longitudinal blank muscle

transverse, smooth

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there is blank muscle as one moves closer to the lungs

more

46

enlargement in airway at top of trachea and below pharynx

larynx

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larynx routes air and blank to proper blank

food, channels

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larynx surrounds and protects blank

glottis

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opening into larynx

glottis

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larynx houses blank

vocal cords

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composed of muscles and cartilage held together by elastic tissue

larynx

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cartilage of larynx that is Adam's apple

thyroid

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larynx cartilage that supports epiglottis

cricoid

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larynx cartilages that attach and control vocal cords

arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform

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folds in mucous membrane

vocal cords

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false vocal cords that create no sound and muscles help close larynx during swallowing

vestibular folds

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true vocal cords that cause sound production

vocal folds

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air pushed past vocal folds causes blank

vibration

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pitch is controlled by changing tension of blank

cords

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tight tension means blank pitch

high

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more force of air means blank sound

louder

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oral cavity, lips, and tongue change blank

sound

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flexible tube that connects larynx with bronchi

trachea

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the trachea has a blank which is a ciliated mucous membrane with goblet cells that beats continuously and expels mucous loaded with debris

Inner wall

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function of trachea is to filter and direct incoming blank

air

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trachea has cartilage blank that prevent collapsing

rings

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these are formed by division of trachea

bronchi

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bronchi are split at blank

carina

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bronchi enter lungs at blank

hilus

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bronchi subdivide into smaller and smaller blank

branches

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divisions of bronchi

primary, secondary, tertiary, bronchioles

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in bronchi there is a difference between blank

sides

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this bronchus is wider, shorter, straighter, and divides into blank parts whereas blank only has blank

right, three, left, two

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there are blank terminal bronchioles

6500

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smooth muscle and little cartilage in bronchioles which causes blank and blank

bronchodilation, bronchoconstriction

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terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory blank

lobules

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there are fifty to eighty terminal branches per blank

lobule

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these lead to alveolar sacs

alveolar ducts

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these contain several alveoli

alveolar sacs

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there are blank alveoli per lung

150 million

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each alveoli is associated with a network of blank

capillaries

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alveoli have an abundance of blank fibers

elastic

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The trachea has 20 c shaped pieces of blank cartilage

Hyaline

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alveolus consists of these cells which are a moist lining that aids in diffusion across respiratory membrane and made of simple squamous epithelium for gas exchange

pneumocyte type 1

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alveolus consists of these cells which do not do gas exchange but secrete pulmonary blank

pneumocyte type 2, surfactant

86

pulmonary surfactant is a fluid with a lower blank force than water

cohesive

87

pulmonary surfactant has blank walls that dont stick to eachother

alveolar

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pulmonary surfactant prevents blank of alveoli

collapse

89

alveolus contains these two connective tissues

fibroblasts, macrophages

90

these are in the thoracic cavity and are surrounded by two membranes

lungs

91

two membranes of lungs

visceral pleura, parietal pleura

92

the blank is in between the two pleura of lungs

pleural cavity

93

all vessels and bronchi enter here in lungs

hilus

94

left lung has blank lobes while right has blank

2, 3

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lung lobes divide into blank

lobules

96

type of respiration with moving air in and out

pulmonary ventilation

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type of respiration that is gas exchange

external respiration

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type of respiration that is transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide

respiratory transport

99

type of respiration that is gas exchange between blood and tissue

internal respiration

100

breathing works depending on the blank changes in the blank cavity

volume, thoracic

101

two phases of breathing

inspiration, expiration

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volume changes lead to blank change in breathing

pressure

103

when pressure changes, gases flow to blank pressure

equalize

104

during inspiration, blank and blank muscles contract

external intercostal, diaphragm

105

on inspiration, this expands

thoracic cavity

106

on inspiration, pressure in the pleural cavity blank

decrease

107

on inspiration, air moves blank lungs to equalize pressure

into

108

a passive process where muscles relax and recoil shrinks thoracic cavity

expiration

109

during expiration, prussure blank in pleural cavity in lungs

increases

110

during this, internal intercostals, external obliques, and abdominal recti muscles contract

forced expiration

111

in expiration, air moves blank to equalize pressure

out