Ch 5 Lec 2 - Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 5 Lec 2 - Skeletal System Deck (85):
1

fibrous connective tissue that surrounds cartilage

perichondrium

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the perichondrium provides support and protection and makes new blank

chondrocytes

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two layers of perichondrium

inner, outer

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layer of perichondrium that binds to cartilage and provides support and protection

outer

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layer of perichondrium that has the matrix

inner

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this starts in the perichondrium and allows the perichondrium to grow

appositional growht

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chondroblasts secrete blank

matrix

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chondroblasts enclosed in the matrix become blank

chondrocytes

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growth where chondrocytes are enclosed in matrix and divide

interstitial growth

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matrix forms between chondrocytes and this is the growth of cartilage from within

interstitial growth

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supportive connective tissue that contains specialized cells and has a solid extracellular matrix

osseous tissue

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an organic portion of protein fibers in osseous tissue

osteoid

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the ground substance of osseous tissue

calcium salts / water

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bone is produced by these cells (first stage)

osteoprogenitor

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bone is created by these cells (stage that does something)

osteoblasts

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derived from osteogenic cells and secrete osteoid, and is the predecessor to osteocytes

osteoblasts

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increased osteoblast activity =

stronger bone

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mature cells that exist within matrix and maintain Ca and PO4 homeostasis

osteocytes

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osteocytes are found in spaces called blank

lacunae

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blank is how osteocytes get oxygen, get nutrients, and communicate

canaliculi

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chain of bone formation

osteoprogenitor, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts (not same cell)

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these are involved in bone cycle and are white blood cell derived

osteoclasts

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osteoclasts are involved in blank

osteolysis

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more osteoclast production =

weaker bone

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osteoclasts are very blank

large

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bone matrix is made up of these two things

osteoid, inorganic materials

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makes up 65 percent of bone matrix and are brittle salts

inorganic materials

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three inorganic materials that make up bone matrix

hydroxyapatite, calcium carbonate, ions

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organic part of bone matrix and makes up 35 percent

osteoid

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three fibers that make up osteoid of bone matrix

collagen, glycoproteins, proteoglycans

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the result of bone matrix is both blank and blank

strong, flexible

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two types of bone

compact, spongy

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compact bone is arranged in blank

osteons

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spongy bones are arranged in blank

trabeculae

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these connect one cell to the next cell in compact bone osteocytes

canaliculi

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in the center of each osteon is a blank

blood vessel

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concentric blank of matrix surrounding a central blank canal

lamellae, haversian

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osteons are connected to each other by blank canals

perforating

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three types of lamellae

concentric, interstitial, circumferential

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layers of bone surrounding the central canal and make up osteons

concentric lamellae

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lamellae that is found between the osteons and represent older osteons partially removed during tissue remodeling

interstitial

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lamellae that surrounds the compact bone and is produced by the blank

circumferential, periosteum

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spongy bones can also be called blank

cancellous

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contains trabeculae, canaliculi, matrix, and osteocytes

spongy bone

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spongy bone does not have these two things

osteons, central canal

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spongy bone is mostly on the blank of the bone

ends

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blank is made of bone and is in spongy bone but is not an osteon. It has lamellae, canaliculi, but not a central canal

trabeculae

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latticework of thin plates of bone oriented a long lines of stress

trabeculae

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spaces of trabeculae are filled with blank where blood cells develop

red marrow

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these lighten the bone and allows for movement

trabeculae

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trabeculae have blank instead of blank

red marrow, blood vessels

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this encloses bone and is absent at the site of attachment of muscles, tendons and ligaments

periosteum

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two layers of periodsteum

outer fibrous, inner

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layer of periosteum that gives rise to collagen

outer fibrous

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layer of periosteum that is for growth or new cells and maintenance

inner

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1 cell layer and covers surfaces of spongy bone and medullary cavity

endosteum

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three types of cells in endosteum

osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteoclasts

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shaft of long bone

diaphysis

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one end of a long bone

epiphysis

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growth plate region of long bone

metaphysis

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over joint surfaces, acts as friction and shock absorber of a long bone

articular cartilage

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marrow cavity of a long bone

medullary cavity

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bone marrow that is areolar and adipose connective tissue and is absent in infants and is for energy storage

yellow

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bone marrow that is areolar and myeloid tissue and produces blood cells

red marrow

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supply periosteum with blood

periosteal arteries

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these enter through nutrient foramen and supplies compact bone of diaphysis and yellow marrow with blood

nutrient arteries

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supply red marrow and bone tissue of epiphyses and metaphyses with blood

metaphyseal and epiphyseal arteries

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each artery supply of bone also has a corresponding blank

vein

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replacing connective tissue with bone

ossification

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mesenchymal cells growing into spongy bone is called blank growth

intramembranous

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hyaline cartilage grows into spongy bone in this growth

endochondral

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this ossification begins at week 8 in embryo and is mostly finished by week 15

intramembranous

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this forms the cranial flat bones, facial bones, dentary bones, clavicle, and sesmoid bones

intramembranous ossification

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location where bone growth begins

primary ossification center

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these cells arrange around blood vessels

mesenchymal

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bone blank proteins are released after mesencyhmal cells arrange

morphogenic

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mesenchymal cells turn into blank

osteoblasts

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osteoblasts secrete blank

osteoid

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osteoblasts become isolated which forms blank

osteocytes

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mesenchymal cells at surface form inner layer of blank

periosteum

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calcified matrix is degraded by blank to form blank bone

osteoclasts, spongy

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end result of intramembranous ossification

spongy bone with a thin layer of compact bone

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ossification where bone replaces a cartilage model

endochondral

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this begins at week 7 of embryo and continues to adulthood

endochondral ossifiction

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this forms long bones, many short bones, non cranial irregular and flate bones, middle ear ossicles

endochondral ossification