Ch 9 Lec 2 - Muscles Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Ch 9 Lec 2 - Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 9 Lec 2 - Muscles Deck (58):
1

in muscle contraction, blank is stored in synaptic vesicles

ach

2

in muscle contraction, impulse reaches end of neuron which releases blank

ach

3

in muscle contraction, ach crosses gap and binds to blank

receptors

4

in muscle contraction, impulse travels through motor blank down t tubules the blank

end plates, sarcoplasmic reticulum

5

in muscle contraction, blank ions diffuse out of the SR into the blank

calcium, sarcoplasm

6

in muscle contraction, calcium exposes the blank

active site

7

in muscle contraction, blank binds to the active site

myosin

8

in muscle contraction, blank is used and contraction occurs

atp

9

in muscle contraction, contraction continues as long as calcium ion blank is high

concentration

10

draw out muscle contraction

to help for the exam

11

during muscle relaxion, ach is decomposed by blank

acetlycholinesterase

12

in muscle relaxion, blank are transported back to sarcoplasmic reticulum

calcium ions

13

in muscle relaxtion, blank and blank links are broken

actin, myosin

14

in muscle relaxtion, blank move back

cross bridges

15

in muscle relaxion, blank is blocked once again

active site

16

the tension produced by a muscle is determined by the blank of stimulation and the number of blank stimulated

frequency, motor units

17

three keys to tension produced

all or none, recruitment, tetanus

18

law that states that all fibers in a motor unity fully contract if stimulated

all or none law

19

steady increase in tension by increasing the number of contracting motor units

recruitment

20

muscle never begins to relax, continuous fused contraction

tetanus

21

motor units contract randomly and there is tension but no movement in this

muscle tone

22

three things that muscle tone can do

stabilize joints, hold things in place, maintain posture

23

constant, exhaustive stimulation increases the number of organelles/proteins in a fiber

hypertrophy

24

overall enlargement of a muscle

hypertrophy

25

muscle fibers do not blank

reproduce

26

lack of constant motor neuron stimulation reduces organelles and proteins and is reversible if fiber is not dead

atrophy

27

atrophy is due to these three things

lack of use, hormones, age, nerve damage

28

attachment site that does not move

origin

29

attachment site that moves

insertion

30

tension =

force

31

fascicle arrangement varies based on blank of muscle

position

32

fascicles parallel to long blank in parallel muscles

axis

33

parallel muscles have this type of force

unidirectional

34

two types of parallel muscles

fusiform, strap-linear

35

fan shaped muscle with multidirectional force, versatility, and generates the least amount of force

convergent muscles

36

example of parallel muscles

biceps brachii

37

example of convergent muscle

pectoralis major

38

feather shaped muscles that have a tendon passing through the muscle and produce the greatest force

pennate

39

example of a pennate muscle

deltoid

40

three types of pennate muscles

unipennate, bipennate, multipennate

41

concentric fascicles around opening and the contraction decreases lumen diameter

circular muscles

42

example of circular muscles

orbicularis oculi

43

rotation around one axis

uniaxial

44

movement that occurs along 2 axes

biaxial

45

movement on all axes

multiaxial

46

main muscle causing directional force action

agonist

47

muscle action that contracts to oppose agonist

antagonist

48

muscle action that assists/modifies movement

synergist

49

muscle action that stabilizes elements associated with agonist

fixator

50

example of fixator action muscles

deltoid stabilizes glenohumeral joint

51

a system that modifies movements and change magnitude of force, speed, direction, distance of limb movement

lever

52

stiff arms or arm that can move at a certain point

lever

53

four components of a lever system

lever, effort, fulcrum, resistance

54

part of lever system that is the skeletal element

lever

55

part of lever system that is the applied force

effort

56

part of the lever system that is the joint

fulcrum

57

part of lever system that is the body part or object moved

resistance

58

effort = blank

applied force