Ch. 28-31 Flashcards Preview

Bio152 > Ch. 28-31 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 28-31 Deck (85):
1

What has caused the classification of protists to change?

Advances in eukaryotic systematics

2

Contain chloroplasts

Photoautotrophs

3

Absorb organic molecules or ingest larger food particles

Heterotrophs

4

Combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition

Mixotrophs

5

What does much of protist diversity originate from?

Endosymbiosis

6

A relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other organism (the host)

Endosymbiosis

7

Where did mitochondria and plastids derive from?

From prokaryotes that were engulfed by the ancestors of early eukaryotic cells

8

T or F: plastids of red and green algae have two membranes

True

9

Transport proteins in the membranes of red and green algae are ___ to those found in cyanobacteria

Homologous

10

What happens in secondary endosymbiosis?

Red and green algae are ingested by a heterotrophic eukaryote

11

What is the clade Excavata characterized by?

Its cytoskeleton

12

Parabasalids have reduced mitochondria called ___ that generate some energy anaerobically

Hydrogenosomes

13

What is the pathogen that causes yeast infections?

Trichomonas vaginalis

14

A diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, mixotrophs, and parasites

Euglenozoa

15

What is the main distinguishing feature of the clade Euglenozoa?

A spiral or crystalline rod inside their flagella

16

What clade includes the kinetoplastids and the euglenids?

Euglenozoa

17

What causes sleeping sickness in humans?

Kinetoplastids in the genus Trypanosoma

18

Which clade is a diverse monophyletic supergroup named for the first letters of its three major clades?

The SAR clade

19

Which clade includes some of the most important photosynthetic organisms on earth?

The Stramenopiles clade

20

What are some things the Stramenopiles clade contains?

Diatoms, golden algae, brown algae

21

About how long ago did small plants, fungi, and animals emerge on land?

Around 500 million years ago

22

Have terrestrial ancestors

Land plants

23

Land plants do not include photosynthetic protists like ___

Algae

24

Plants supply ___ and ___ for land animals

Oxygen and food

25

What are the closest relatives of land plants?

Green algae called charophytes

26

What are the three traits that land plants share only with charophytes?

1. Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins
2. Structure of flagellated sperm
3. Formation of a phragmoplast

27

Are land plants descended from modern charophytes?

No, but they do share a common ancestor

28

What is the layer of durable polymer in charophytes called?

Sporopollenin

29

What is the role of Sporopollenin?

It prevents exposed zygotes from dying out

30

What were two challenges faced by charophytes ancestors when they moved to land?

1. Scarcity of water
2. Lack of structural support

31

List the five key traits that appear in nearly all land plants but are not present in charophytes

1. Alternation of generations
2. Multicellular, dependent embryos
3. Walled spores produced in sporangia
4. Multicellular gametangia
5. Apical meristems

32

What is the name of the reproductive cycle where plants alternate between two multicellular stages?

Alternation of generations

33

This is haploid and produces haploid gametes by mitosis

Gametophyte

34

Fusion of the gametes make what?

The diploid sporophyte

35

What does the diploid sporophyte produce?

Haploid spores

36

How does the diploid sporophyte produce haploid spores?

Through meiosis

37

How are nutrients transferred from parent to embryo?

Through placental transfer cells

38

Why are land plants called embryophytes?

Because of the dependency of the embryo on the parent

39

The sporophyte produces spores in organs-what are they called?

Sporangia

40

How do diploid cells called sporocytes generate haploid spores?

They undergo meiosis

41

What do spore walls contain that make them resistant to harsh environments?

Sporopollenin

42

About how long ago did seed plants originate?

360 million years ago

43

What does a seed consist of?

An embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat

44

What is one way seeds can disperse?

Wind

45

What are four things common to all seed plants?

1. Gametophytes
2. Heterospory
3. Ovules
4. Pollen

46

Where do gametophytes of seed plants develop?

Within the walls of spores that are retained within tissues of the parent sporophyte

47

What is the difference between the ancestors of seed plants and seed plants?

The ancestors of seed plants were homosporous. Seed plants are heterosporous

48

What do microsporangia produce?

Microspores

49

What do microspores give rise to?

Male gametophytes

50

What are three things an ovule consists of?

1. Megasporangium
2. Megaspore
3. One or more protective integuments

51

How many integuments do gymnosperm megasporangia have?

One

52

How many integuments do angiosperm usually have?

Two

53

What do microspores develop into?

Pollen grains

54

What do pollen grains contain?

The male gametophytes

55

What is pollination?

The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules

56

What does pollen eliminate?

The need for a film of water

57

What happens if a pollen grain germinates?

It gives rise to a pollen tube that discharges sperm into the female gametophyte within the ovule

58

What does gymnosperm mean?

Naked seed

59

Most gymnosperms are cone-bearing plants called ___

Conifers

60

List the three key features of the gymnosperm life cycle

1. Miniaturization of their gametophytes
2. Development of seeds from fertilized ovules
3. Transfer of sperm to ovules by pollen

61

About how long does it take to get from cone production to mature seed?

Nearly 3 years

62

Why are fungi essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems?

Because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients

63

True or false: fungi are heterotrophs

True

64

How do fungi break down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds?

They use enzymes

65

List three lifestyles that fungi exhibit

1. Decomposers
2. Parasites
3. Mutualists

66

What are the most common body structures of fungi?

Multicellular filaments; single cells (yeast)

67

What are mycelia?

Networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption

68

What do fungal cell walls contain?

Chitin

69

What type of fungi lack septa and have a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds or thousands of nuclei?

Coenocytic fungi

70

What is the specialized hyphae that some unique fungi have that allows them to penetrate the tissues of their host?

Haustoria

71

What are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots called?

Mycorrhizae

72

What type of fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex?

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

73

What type of fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane?

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

74

Are fungal nuclei normally haploid or diploid? Is there an exception?

Haploid. Exception: transient diploid stages formed during sexual life cycles

75

How do fungi communicate their mating type?

They use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones

76

The Union of cytoplasm from two parent mycelia

Plasmogamy

77

T or F: fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than they are to plants and other eukaryotes

True

78

What makes up the opisthokonts clade?

Fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives

79

T or F: fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land

True

80

Where are chytrids found?

In terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats (including hydrothermal vents)

81

What are zoospores?

Flagellated spores that chytrids have. They make chytrids unique among fungi.

82

A diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, mixotrophs, and parasites

Euglenozoa

83

Unicellular algae with a unique two-part glass-like wall of silicon dioxide

Diatoms

84

About how many species of fungi?

1.5 million

85

What is a protist?

The informal name of the group of (mostly) unicellular eukaryotes