Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (33):
1

Do organisms evolve?

No, populations evolve over time

2

Human modification of species by selecting and breeding those with desired traits, as opposed to letting those traits occur naturally

Artificial selection

3

What does MRSA stand for?

Methicillin Resistant S Aureus

4

A pathogen which became resistant to antibiotics because the bacteria adapted to resist because of overuse

MRSA

5

Does natural selection create new traits?

No, it edits or selects traits already in the population

6

Similarity resulting from common ancestry. Give an example.

Homology. Example: bone structure of mammals-humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, phalanges

7

Structures which no longer serve a purpose, but did for bIological ancestors

Vestigial structures

8

Evolution of similar features in distinctly related groups. Give an example.

Convergent evolution. Example: similarities between sugar gliders and flying squirrels

9

Remains or traces of organisms from the past. Found in sedimentary rock-layers called strata

Fossils

10

What did Darwin collect and observe during his travels on the Beagle?

Collected specimens of South American plants and animals. Observed that fossils resembled living species from the same region, and living species resembled other species from nearby regions

11

A process in which individuals with favorable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals

Natural selection

12

Give two examples that provide evidence for natural selection

1) response to introduced plant species
2) evolution of drug-resistant bacteria

13

Give an example of homologies at the molecular level

Genes shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor

14

The scientific study of the geographic distribution of species. Provides evidence for evolution.

Biogeography

15

Evolution can be viewed as both a ___ and a ___

Pattern; process

16

Inhibits a protein used by bacteria to produce cell walls

Methicillin

17

Similarity because of a common ancestor

Homology

18

Gives evidence that species are extinct, new species emerg, and species change over time

Fossil record

19

Species that are not found anywhere else in the world. Give an example.

Endemic species. Example: kangaroos are only found in Australia

20

What was the name of the original continent

Pangaea

21

What were the 3 observations that Darwin had?

1) Unity of life
2) Diversity
3) Match between organisms and their environment

22

What are the 4 types of evidence for evolution?

1) Direct Observations
2) Homology
3) Fossil Record
4) Biogeography

23

Name an organism that continues to retain vestigial structures

Snakes, cave fish, lizards

24

What is the difference between analogous and homologous structures?

Analogous-share similar functions but not from common ancestry.

Homologous- different functions but share common ancestry

25

The increase in the evolution of drug-resistant pathogens is due to ___

Natural selection

26

Who was the scientist who created paleontology?

Georges Cuvier

27

What were Lamarck's two hypotheses of evolution?

1) use and disuse
2) inheritance of acquired characteristics

28

States that body parts of an organism that are used frequently become larger and more extensive while those not used will deteriorate.

Lamarck's Use or disuse theory

29

States that an organism can pass utilized characteristics to their offspring

Lamarck's Inheritance of acquired characteristics

30

Who was the founder of taxonomy

Linnaeus

31

Evolution= ___; the view that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past

Descent with modification

32

Regarding natural selection, what happens if an environment changes over time?

Natural selection may result in adaptation to new conditions and new species may arise

33

Hypotheses about the relationships among different groups

Evolutionary trees