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Flashcards in Chapter 50 Deck (100):
1

What are the 5 types of sensory receptors?

Mechanoreceptors
Chemoreceptors
Electromagnetic receptors
Thermoreceptors
Pain receptors

2

Granules within the utricle and saccule that help perceive relative position to gravity and/or linear movement

Otoliths

3

How does the vertebrate visual system work?

Eyes detect color and light; brain assembles information input to perceive image

4

What 2 senses do aquatic animals not differentiate?

Olfaction and gustation (smell and taste)

5

What are the 3 types of taste receptors?

Protein receptors
TRP receptors
Sodium channels

6

Taste receptor for sweet, umami, and bitter

Protein receptors (GPCRS)

7

Taste receptor for sour

TRP receptor

8

Taste receptor for salty

Sodium channels

9

Is smell based on chemoreceptors or neurons?

Neurons

10

Muscle cell contraction relies on what?

Thin filament (actin) and thick filament (myosin)

11

What are the 3 types of muscles?

Skeletal, cardiac, smooth

12

What are the types of skeletal systems?

Hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, endoskeleton

13

The conversion of stimulus energy into a change in the membrane potential of a sensory receptor

Sensory transduction

14

Decrease in responsiveness to continued stimulation

Sensory adaptation

15

The strengthening of sensory signal during transduction

Amplification

16

Receptors that respond to excess heat, pressure, or chemicals released from damaged or inflamed tissues

Pain receptors

17

The ear conveys information about what?

Volume and pitch

18

The amplitude of the sound waves

Volume

19

The frequency of the sound waves

Pitch

20

The ___ and ___ contain granules called otoliths that allow us to perceive position relative to gravity of linear movement

Utricle; saccule

21

What's another name for pain receptor?

Nociceptors

22

Where is the tympanic membrane located?

In the outer ear

23

What system do most fish use? What type of receptors do they use?

Lateral line system; mechanoreceptors

24

T or F: invertebrates have compound eyes

False

25

Detect colors

Cones

26

Detect black and white

Rods

27

What's the name of the movement used by annelids with a hydrostatic skeleton?

Peristalsis (use fluid in body to create waves to make them crawl)

28

The brain's construction of stimuli

Perception

29

How do myosin and actin make muscles constrict?

They pull on each other

30

What are the 5 tastes that the human tongue can pick up?

Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, unami

31

What type of eyes do most insects have?

Ommatidia

32

What type of eyes do humans have?

Single-lens, pupil, iris

33

What are the 3 bones in the ear?

Malleus, incus, stapes

34

What is gustation dependent on?

Tastants

35

Name a part of the outer ear

Pinna

36

Name a part of the middle ear

Oval window

37

Name a part of the inner ear

Cochlea

38

How fish detect water movement and how they hear

Lateral line system

39

What causes the SR to release Ca2+?

Action potential traveling through the T-tubules

40

Since the response of a sensory receptor varies with intensity of stimuli, what is the result if the receptor is a neuron vs not a neuron?

IS a neuron: larger receptor potential results in more frequent action potentials

Is NOT a neuron: larger receptor potential causes more neurotransmitters to be released

41

Where can you find the mechanoreceptors that help maintain equilibrium in most invertebrates?

Statocyst

42

In response to glutamate, some bipolar cells are ___ while others are ___

Hyperpolarized; depolarized

43

The center of the visual field. Contains no rods but is composed of a high density of cones

Fovea

44

Olfaction is dependent on what?

Odorant molecules

45

Can aquatic animals distinguish between taste and smell?

No

46

What causes a twitch?

A single action potential in a motor neuron

47

A state of smooth and sustained contraction produced when motor neurons deliver a volley of action potentials

Tetanus

48

Respond to heat and cold by helping regulate body temperature

Thermoreceptors

49

Ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments relax

Near vision

50

What is another name for skeletal muscle?

Striated muscle

51

What are 2 basic mechanisms by which the nervous system produces graded contractions?

1) varying # of fibers that contract
2) varying rate @ which fibers are stimulated

52

Name an organism that uses electromagnetic receptors to detect stimuli

Fish, whales

53

What are the 3 bones located in the middle ear?

Malleus
Incus
Stapes

54

The organ of corti contains ___ that consist of hair cells to pick up sound

Mechanoreceptors

55

Insects and crustaceans have excellent color vision and can see UV light. What allows this to happen?

They have compound eyes that consist of several thousand light detectors (ommatidia)

56

Where is Ca2+ stored in the muscle fiber?

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

57

What color is slow twitch muscle?

Red

58

What color is fast twitch muscle?

White

59

Found in vertebrates
Lack striations
Located in walls of organs, blood vessels, organs of digestive tract

Smooth muscle

60

What organisms have an exoskeleton?

Clams, turtles, mollusks

61

Maintain equilibrium using mechanoreceptors

Statocysts

62

The change in membrane potential

Receptor potential

63

Receptor potentials are ___ potentials

Graded

64

Sense physical changes in the environment like pressure, stretch, motion, and sound

Mechanoreceptors

65

Detect electromagnetic energy like light, electricity, and magnetism

Electromagnetic receptors

66

T or F: When a stimulus's input to the nervous system is processed, a motor response may be generated

True

67

T or F: for many sensory receptors, transfusing the energy in a stimulus into a receptor potential initiates action potentials that are transmitted to the CNS

True

68

___ activates rhodopsin, which activates a ___ protein, eventually leading to ___ of ___ ___

Trans-retinal; G; hydrolysis; cyclic GMP

69

T or F: vertebrate skeletal muscle moves bones in the body and is characterized by a hierarchy of smaller and smaller units

True

70

___ fibers contract more slowly but sustain longer contractions, which fibers are oxidative

Slow twitch

71

Detection of stimuli by sensory receptors

Sensory reception

72

Conversion of stimulus energy into a change in the membrane potential of a sensory receptor

Transduction

73

Action potentials that are transmitted to the CNS

Transmission

74

Begins as soon as information is received

Integration

75

Sense physical deformation such as pressure, stretch, motion, and sound

Mechanoreceptors

76

Transmit information about the total solute concentration of a solution

Chemoreceptors

77

Detect electromagnetic energy such as light, electricity, and magnetism

Electromagnetic receptors

78

Help regulate body temperature by signaling both surface and body core temperature

Thermoreceptors

79

Detect stimuli that reflect harmful conditions

Pain receptors

80

Eyes of all vertebrates have a ___ lens

Single

81

At least what percentage of the cerebral cortex is active in creating visual perceptions?

30%

82

Perception of color is based on what 3 pigments? What are the pigments called?

Red, green, blue
Photopsins

83

Formed when retinal binds to 3 distinct opsin proteins

Photopsins

84

Dependent on the detection of chemicals called tastants

Gustation (taste)

85

Dependent on the detection of odorant molecules

Olfaction (smell)

86

Single cell bundle of long fibers, running parallel to the length of the muscle

Skeletal muscle

87

Fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment. Most cnidarians, flatworms, nematodes, and annelids

Hydrostatic skeleton

88

Hard encase meant deposited on the surface of an animal. In most mollusks and arthropods

Exoskeleton

89

Hard internal skeleton, buried in soft tissue. Ranges from sponges to mammals

Endoskeleton

90

T or F: all stimuli represent forms of energy

True

91

___ ___ interact directly with stimuli, both inside and outside the body

Sensory receptors

92

The conversion of stimulus energy into a change in the membrane potential of a sensory receptor

Sensory transduction

93

How many motor neurons are in a motor unit?

1

94

When can processing of sensory information occur?

Before, during, and after transmission of action potentials to the CNS

95

Give an example of mechanoreceptor

Knee jerk response

96

Give example of chemoreceptor

Antennae of male silkworm moths have very sensitive chemoreceptors

97

Give example of electromagnetic receptor

Many animals migrate using Earth's magnetic field to orient themselves

98

Give example of thermoreceptor

Mammals have variety of thermoreceptors which are specific to a particular temperature range

99

Give example of pain receptor/ nociceptor

Jerking hand away from hot stove

100

What are the 4 basic functions of sensory pathways?

Sensory Reception
Transduction
Transmission
Integration