Chapter 45 Flashcards Preview

Bio152 > Chapter 45 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 45 Deck (61):
1

What body system is in charge of chemical signaling by hormones?

Endocrine system

2

What body system is a network of specialized cells called neurons that transmit signals along pathways?

Nervous system

3

What 3 things determine how signals are transmitted between animal cells?

1) type of secreting cell
2) route taken by the signal in reaching its target
3) type of receptor involved

4

Molecules that act over short distances, reaching target cells by diffusion

Local regulators

5

Target cells lie near secreting cells

Paracrine signaling

6

Target cell is also the secreting cell

Autocrine signaling

7

Local regulators that mediate paracrine and autocrine signaling. They help with reproduction, the immune system, and blood clotting

Prostaglandins

8

Chemicals that are released into the environment. They mark trails that lead to food, define territories, warn of predators, and attract mates

Pheromones

9

How are water-soluble hormones secreted?

By exocytosis

10

What are the 2 types of corticosteroids that humans produce?

1) glucocorticoids
2) mineralocorticoids

11

What are the 2 criteria that determine the ways signals are transmitted between animal cells

1) type of secreting cell
2) route taken by the signal in reaching its target

12

Molecules that act over short distances, reaching target cells solely by diffusion

Local regulators

13

What processes do paracrine and autocrine signaling play big roles in?

Blood pressure regulation, nervous system function, reproduction

14

At synapses, neurons secrete molecules that diffuse short distances and bind to receptors on target cells. What are these molecules called?

Neurotransmitters

15

A gas that functions in the body as both a local regulators and a neurotransmitter

Nitric oxide (NO)

16

Name the 3 classes of hormones (chemical classes)

Polypeptides
Steroids
Amines

17

What is the difference between steroids and polypeptides?

Polypeptides are water-soluble; steroid hormones are lipid-soluble

18

Give an example of a hormone that may have different effects on target cells

Epinephrine-can increase blood flow to major skeletal muscles, but decreases blood flow to the digestive tract

19

___ reach all parts of the body, but only ___ cells have receptors for that hormone

Hormones
Target

20

Chemical signaling by hormones is the function of which system?

Endocrine

21

Which type of feedback results in reinforcing a stimulus to produce an even greater response?

Positive feedback

22

___ do not have have ducts; ___ glands do have ducts

Endocrine
Exocrine

23

What is the function of melatonin? Which gland secretes it?

Melatonin regulates sleep; the pineal gland secretes melatonin

24

Stops a gland from secreting a hormone

Negative feedback

25

Increases stimuli, which causes more hormones to be secreted

Positive feedback

26

What does the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulate?

Physiology and behavior

27

When the thyroid gland produces too small of an amount of TSH, which causes weight gain and cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

28

Which gland secretes growth hormone (GH)?

Anterior pituitary

29

Composed of posterior and anterior pituitary

Pituitary gland

30

In neuroendocrine signaling,specialized ___ cells secrete molecules called neurotransmitters that travel to target cells via the bloodstream

Neurohormones

31

Endocrine cells are often grouped in ductless organs called __ glands such as the thyroid and parathyroid glands, testes, and ovaries

Endocrine glands

32

Binding of a hormone to its receptor initiates a ____ ____ ____ leading to responses in the cytoskeleton, enzyme activation, or a change in gene expression

Signal transduction pathway

33

Insulin and glucagon are secreted by the ___

Pancreas

34

Secretes a neurohormone which enters the bloodstream and travels to target cells

Neurosecretory cell

35

Inhibits a response by reducing the initial stimulus, thud preventing excessive pathway activity

Negative feedback loop

36

Stores and secretes hormones that are made in the hypothalamus

Posterior pituitary

37

Makes and releases hormones under regulation of the hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary

38

Type of hormone that flows freely in the bloodstream and binds to cell surface receptors

Hydrophilic hormone

39

Type of hormone that diffuses across the cell membrane and travels to the bloodstream bound to transport proteins

Hydrophobic hormone

40

Regulates anterior pituitary; receives information from nervous system; initiates response through endocrine system.

Hypothalamus

41

Releases PTH to regular season blood calcium level

Parathyroid

42

Which responds faster, hormones or neurons?

Neurons

43

How do synapses send signals?

Neurotransmitters from one neuron are secreted and bind to target cells on another neuron

44

Name some endocrine glands

Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes

45

T or F: males and females both produce estrogen

True

46

Chemical signals that are secreted into the circulatory system and communicate regulatory messages within the body

Animal hormones

47

Diffuse short distances and bind to receptors on target cells. Also give an example

Neurotransmitters. Example = nitric oxide

48

Travel to target cells via the bloodstream

Neurohormones

49

The hormone ___ has effects in mediating the body's response to short-term stress

Epinephrine

50

Nerves from the hypothalamus trigger the release of ___ from the posterior pituitary

Oxytocin (cuddle hormone; causes mammary glands to secrete milk)

51

What two glands does the adrenal gland consist of?

Adrenal medulla (inner portion)
Adrenal cortex (outer portion)

52

When cutting your finger, you feel a sharp pain due to ___

Prostaglandins

53

Name some types of local regulators

Cytokines, growth factors, polypeptides, gases

54

What is the role of the thyroid and parathyroid hormones?

Regulates the level of blood calcium to stabilization

55

What are the 3 types of sex hormones?

Androgens, estrogens, and progestins

56

Give examples of lipid solvable hormones

Thyroxine, vitamin D, steroids

57

Give examples of water soluble hormones

Epinephrine, insulin

58

T or F: neurotransmitters are secreted for short distances to bind target cells

True

59

Change the salt and water balance

Mineralocorticoids

60

Polypeptides and amines are ___ whereas steroid hormones and other largely nonpolar hormones are ___

Water-soluble; lipid-soluble

61

What happens when thyroid hormone level drops in the blood?

Hypothalamus secreted TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) causing the anterior pituitary to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)